FxPros.Net - Forex Statistics

3 years, 28 pairs and 310 trades later

This thread is the direct continuation of my previous entry, which you can find here. I have the feeling my rambles may be long, so I'm not going to repeat anything I already said in my previous post for the sake of keeping this brief.
What is this?
I am backtesting the strategy shared by ParallaxFx. I have just completed my second run of testing, and I am here to share my results with those who are interested. If you want to read more about the strategy, go to my previous thread where I linked it.
What changed?
Instead of using a fixed target of the -100.0 Fibonacci extension, I tracked both the -61.8 and the -100.0 targets. ParallaxFx used the -61.8 as a target, but never tried the second one, so I wanted to compare the two and see what happens.
Where can I see your backtested result?
I am going to do something I hope I won't regret and share the link to my spreadsheet. Hopefully I won't be doxxed, but I think I should be fine. You can find my spreadsheet at this link. There are a lot of entries, so it may take a while for them to load. In the "Trades" tab, you will find every trade I backtested with an attached screenshot and the results it would have had with the extended and the unextended target. You can see the UNCOMPOUNDED equity curve in the Summary tab, together with the overall statistics for the system.
What was the sample size?
I backtested on the Daily chart, from January 2017 to December 2019, over 28 currency pairs. I took a total of 310 trades - although keep in mind that every position is most often composed by two entries, meaning that you can roughly halve this number.
What is the bottom line?
If you're not interested in the details, here are the stats of the strategy based on how I traded it.
Here you can see the two uncompounded equity curves side by side: red is unextended and blue is extended.
Who wins?
The test suggests the strategy to be more profitable with the extended target. In addition, most of the trades that reached the unextended target but reversed before reaching the extended, were trades that I would have most likely not have taken with the extented target. This is because there was a resistance/support area in the way of the -100.0 extension level, but there was enough room for price to reach the -61.8 level.
I will probably trade this strategy using the -100.0 level as target, unless there is an area in the way. In that case I will go for the unextended target.
Drawdown management
The expected losing streak for this system, using the extended target, is 7 trades in a row in a sample size of 100 trades. My goal is to have a drawdown cap of 4%, so my risk per trade will be 0.54%. If I ever find myself in a losing streak of more than 8 trades, I will reduce my risk per trade further.
What's next?
I'll be taking this strategy live. The wisest move would be to repeat the same testing over lower timeframes to verify the edge plays out there as well, but I would not be able to trust my results because I would have vague memories of where price went because of the testing I just did. I also believe markets are fractals, so I see no reason why this wouldn't work on lower timeframes.
Before going live, I will expand this spreadsheet to include more specific analysis and I will continue backtesting at a slower pace. The goal is to reach 20 years of backtesting over these 28 pairs and put everything into this spreadsheet. It's not something I will do overnight, but I'll probably do one year every odd day, and maybe a couple more during the weekend.
I think I don't have much else to add. I like the strategy. Feel free to ask questions.
submitted by Vanguer to Forex [link] [comments]

H1 Backtest of ParallaxFX's BBStoch system

Disclaimer: None of this is financial advice. I have no idea what I'm doing. Please do your own research or you will certainly lose money. I'm not a statistician, data scientist, well-seasoned trader, or anything else that would qualify me to make statements such as the below with any weight behind them. Take them for the incoherent ramblings that they are.
TL;DR at the bottom for those not interested in the details.
This is a bit of a novel, sorry about that. It was mostly for getting my own thoughts organized, but if even one person reads the whole thing I will feel incredibly accomplished.

Background

For those of you not familiar, please see the various threads on this trading system here. I can't take credit for this system, all glory goes to ParallaxFX!
I wanted to see how effective this system was at H1 for a couple of reasons: 1) My current broker is TD Ameritrade - their Forex minimum is a mini lot, and I don't feel comfortable enough yet with the risk to trade mini lots on the higher timeframes(i.e. wider pip swings) that ParallaxFX's system uses, so I wanted to see if I could scale it down. 2) I'm fairly impatient, so I don't like to wait days and days with my capital tied up just to see if a trade is going to win or lose.
This does mean it requires more active attention since you are checking for setups once an hour instead of once a day or every 4-6 hours, but the upside is that you trade more often this way so you end up winning or losing faster and moving onto the next trade. Spread does eat more of the trade this way, but I'll cover this in my data below - it ends up not being a problem.
I looked at data from 6/11 to 7/3 on all pairs with a reasonable spread(pairs listed at bottom above the TL;DR). So this represents about 3-4 weeks' worth of trading. I used mark(mid) price charts. Spreadsheet link is below for anyone that's interested.

System Details

I'm pretty much using ParallaxFX's system textbook, but since there are a few options in his writeups, I'll include all the discretionary points here:

And now for the fun. Results!

As you can see, a higher target ended up with higher profit despite a much lower winrate. This is partially just how things work out with profit targets in general, but there's an additional point to consider in our case: the spread. Since we are trading on a lower timeframe, there is less overall price movement and thus the spread takes up a much larger percentage of the trade than it would if you were trading H4, Daily or Weekly charts. You can see exactly how much it accounts for each trade in my spreadsheet if you're interested. TDA does not have the best spreads, so you could probably improve these results with another broker.
EDIT: I grabbed typical spreads from other brokers, and turns out while TDA is pretty competitive on majors, their minors/crosses are awful! IG beats them by 20-40% and Oanda beats them 30-60%! Using IG spreads for calculations increased profits considerably (another 5% on top) and Oanda spreads increased profits massively (another 15%!). Definitely going to be considering another broker than TDA for this strategy. Plus that'll allow me to trade micro-lots, so I can be more granular(and thus accurate) with my position sizing and compounding.

A Note on Spread

As you can see in the data, there were scenarios where the spread was 80% of the overall size of the trade(the size of the confirmation candle that you draw your fibonacci retracements over), which would obviously cut heavily into your profits.
Removing any trades where the spread is more than 50% of the trade width improved profits slightly without removing many trades, but this is almost certainly just coincidence on a small sample size. Going below 40% and even down to 30% starts to cut out a lot of trades for the less-common pairs, but doesn't actually change overall profits at all(~1% either way).
However, digging all the way down to 25% starts to really make some movement. Profit at the -161.8% TP level jumps up to 37.94% if you filter out anything with a spread that is more than 25% of the trade width! And this even keeps the sample size fairly large at 187 total trades.
You can get your profits all the way up to 48.43% at the -161.8% TP level if you filter all the way down to only trades where spread is less than 15% of the trade width, however your sample size gets much smaller at that point(108 trades) so I'm not sure I would trust that as being accurate in the long term.
Overall based on this data, I'm going to only take trades where the spread is less than 25% of the trade width. This may bias my trades more towards the majors, which would mean a lot more correlated trades as well(more on correlation below), but I think it is a reasonable precaution regardless.

Time of Day

Time of day had an interesting effect on trades. In a totally predictable fashion, a vast majority of setups occurred during the London and New York sessions: 5am-12pm Eastern. However, there was one outlier where there were many setups on the 11PM bar - and the winrate was about the same as the big hours in the London session. No idea why this hour in particular - anyone have any insight? That's smack in the middle of the Tokyo/Sydney overlap, not at the open or close of either.
On many of the hour slices I have a feeling I'm just dealing with small number statistics here since I didn't have a lot of data when breaking it down by individual hours. But here it is anyway - for all TP levels, these three things showed up(all in Eastern time):
I don't have any reason to think these timeframes would maintain this behavior over the long term. They're almost certainly meaningless. EDIT: When you de-dup highly correlated trades, the number of trades in these timeframes really drops, so from this data there is no reason to think these timeframes would be any different than any others in terms of winrate.
That being said, these time frames work out for me pretty well because I typically sleep 12am-7am Eastern time. So I automatically avoid the 5am-6am timeframe, and I'm awake for the majority of this system's setups.

Moving stops up to breakeven

This section goes against everything I know and have ever heard about trade management. Please someone find something wrong with my data. I'd love for someone to check my formulas, but I realize that's a pretty insane time commitment to ask of a bunch of strangers.
Anyways. What I found was that for these trades moving stops up...basically at all...actually reduced the overall profitability.
One of the data points I collected while charting was where the price retraced back to after hitting a certain milestone. i.e. once the price hit the -61.8% profit level, how far back did it retrace before hitting the -100% profit level(if at all)? And same goes for the -100% profit level - how far back did it retrace before hitting the -161.8% profit level(if at all)?
Well, some complex excel formulas later and here's what the results appear to be. Emphasis on appears because I honestly don't believe it. I must have done something wrong here, but I've gone over it a hundred times and I can't find anything out of place.
Now, you might think exactly what I did when looking at these numbers: oof, the spread killed us there right? Because even when you move your SL to 0%, you still end up paying the spread, so it's not truly "breakeven". And because we are trading on a lower timeframe, the spread can be pretty hefty right?
Well even when I manually modified the data so that the spread wasn't subtracted(i.e. "Breakeven" was truly +/- 0), things don't look a whole lot better, and still way worse than the passive trade management method of leaving your stops in place and letting it run. And that isn't even a realistic scenario because to adjust out the spread you'd have to move your stoploss inside the candle edge by at least the spread amount, meaning it would almost certainly be triggered more often than in the data I collected(which was purely based on the fib levels and mark price). Regardless, here are the numbers for that scenario:
From a literal standpoint, what I see behind this behavior is that 44 of the 69 breakeven trades(65%!) ended up being profitable to -100% after retracing deeply(but not to the original SL level), which greatly helped offset the purely losing trades better than the partial profit taken at -61.8%. And 36 went all the way back to -161.8% after a deep retracement without hitting the original SL. Anyone have any insight into this? Is this a problem with just not enough data? It seems like enough trades that a pattern should emerge, but again I'm no expert.
I also briefly looked at moving stops to other lower levels (78.6%, 61.8%, 50%, 38.2%, 23.6%), but that didn't improve things any. No hard data to share as I only took a quick look - and I still might have done something wrong overall.
The data is there to infer other strategies if anyone would like to dig in deep(more explanation on the spreadsheet below). I didn't do other combinations because the formulas got pretty complicated and I had already answered all the questions I was looking to answer.

2-Candle vs Confirmation Candle Stops

Another interesting point is that the original system has the SL level(for stop entries) just at the outer edge of the 2-candle pattern that makes up the system. Out of pure laziness, I set up my stops just based on the confirmation candle. And as it turns out, that is much a much better way to go about it.
Of the 60 purely losing trades, only 9 of them(15%) would go on to be winners with stops on the 2-candle formation. Certainly not enough to justify the extra loss and/or reduced profits you are exposing yourself to in every single other trade by setting a wider SL.
Oddly, in every single scenario where the wider stop did save the trade, it ended up going all the way to the -161.8% profit level. Still, not nearly worth it.

Correlated Trades

As I've said many times now, I'm really not qualified to be doing an analysis like this. This section in particular.
Looking at shared currency among the pairs traded, 74 of the trades are correlated. Quite a large group, but it makes sense considering the sort of moves we're looking for with this system.
This means you are opening yourself up to more risk if you were to trade on every signal since you are technically trading with the same underlying sentiment on each different pair. For example, GBP/USD and AUD/USD moving together almost certainly means it's due to USD moving both pairs, rather than GBP and AUD both moving the same size and direction coincidentally at the same time. So if you were to trade both signals, you would very likely win or lose both trades - meaning you are actually risking double what you'd normally risk(unless you halve both positions which can be a good option, and is discussed in ParallaxFX's posts and in various other places that go over pair correlation. I won't go into detail about those strategies here).
Interestingly though, 17 of those apparently correlated trades ended up with different wins/losses.
Also, looking only at trades that were correlated, winrate is 83%/70%/55% (for the three TP levels).
Does this give some indication that the same signal on multiple pairs means the signal is stronger? That there's some strong underlying sentiment driving it? Or is it just a matter of too small a sample size? The winrate isn't really much higher than the overall winrates, so that makes me doubt it is statistically significant.
One more funny tidbit: EUCAD netted the lowest overall winrate: 30% to even the -61.8% TP level on 10 trades. Seems like that is just a coincidence and not enough data, but dang that's a sucky losing streak.
EDIT: WOW I spent some time removing correlated trades manually and it changed the results quite a bit. Some thoughts on this below the results. These numbers also include the other "What I will trade" filters. I added a new worksheet to my data to show what I ended up picking.
To do this, I removed correlated trades - typically by choosing those whose spread had a lower % of the trade width since that's objective and something I can see ahead of time. Obviously I'd like to only keep the winning trades, but I won't know that during the trade. This did reduce the overall sample size down to a level that I wouldn't otherwise consider to be big enough, but since the results are generally consistent with the overall dataset, I'm not going to worry about it too much.
I may also use more discretionary methods(support/resistance, quality of indecision/confirmation candles, news/sentiment for the pairs involved, etc) to filter out correlated trades in the future. But as I've said before I'm going for a pretty mechanical system.
This brought the 3 TP levels and even the breakeven strategies much closer together in overall profit. It muted the profit from the high R:R strategies and boosted the profit from the low R:R strategies. This tells me pair correlation was skewing my data quite a bit, so I'm glad I dug in a little deeper. Fortunately my original conclusion to use the -161.8 TP level with static stops is still the winner by a good bit, so it doesn't end up changing my actions.
There were a few times where MANY (6-8) correlated pairs all came up at the same time, so it'd be a crapshoot to an extent. And the data showed this - often then won/lost together, but sometimes they did not. As an arbitrary rule, the more correlations, the more trades I did end up taking(and thus risking). For example if there were 3-5 correlations, I might take the 2 "best" trades given my criteria above. 5+ setups and I might take the best 3 trades, even if the pairs are somewhat correlated.
I have no true data to back this up, but to illustrate using one example: if AUD/JPY, AUD/USD, CAD/JPY, USD/CAD all set up at the same time (as they did, along with a few other pairs on 6/19/20 9:00 AM), can you really say that those are all the same underlying movement? There are correlations between the different correlations, and trying to filter for that seems rough. Although maybe this is a known thing, I'm still pretty green to Forex - someone please enlighten me if so! I might have to look into this more statistically, but it would be pretty complex to analyze quantitatively, so for now I'm going with my gut and just taking a few of the "best" trades out of the handful.
Overall, I'm really glad I went further on this. The boosting of the B/E strategies makes me trust my calculations on those more since they aren't so far from the passive management like they were with the raw data, and that really had me wondering what I did wrong.

What I will trade

Putting all this together, I am going to attempt to trade the following(demo for a bit to make sure I have the hang of it, then for keeps):
Looking at the data for these rules, test results are:
I'll be sure to let everyone know how it goes!

Other Technical Details

Raw Data

Here's the spreadsheet for anyone that'd like it. (EDIT: Updated some of the setups from the last few days that have fully played out now. I also noticed a few typos, but nothing major that would change the overall outcomes. Regardless, I am currently reviewing every trade to ensure they are accurate.UPDATE: Finally all done. Very few corrections, no change to results.)
I have some explanatory notes below to help everyone else understand the spiraled labyrinth of a mind that put the spreadsheet together.

Insanely detailed spreadsheet notes

For you real nerds out there. Here's an explanation of what each column means:

Pairs

  1. AUD/CAD
  2. AUD/CHF
  3. AUD/JPY
  4. AUD/NZD
  5. AUD/USD
  6. CAD/CHF
  7. CAD/JPY
  8. CHF/JPY
  9. EUAUD
  10. EUCAD
  11. EUCHF
  12. EUGBP
  13. EUJPY
  14. EUNZD
  15. EUUSD
  16. GBP/AUD
  17. GBP/CAD
  18. GBP/CHF
  19. GBP/JPY
  20. GBP/NZD
  21. GBP/USD
  22. NZD/CAD
  23. NZD/CHF
  24. NZD/JPY
  25. NZD/USD
  26. USD/CAD
  27. USD/CHF
  28. USD/JPY

TL;DR

Based on the reasonable rules I discovered in this backtest:

Demo Trading Results

Since this post, I started demo trading this system assuming a 5k capital base and risking ~1% per trade. I've added the details to my spreadsheet for anyone interested. The results are pretty similar to the backtest when you consider real-life conditions/timing are a bit different. I missed some trades due to life(work, out of the house, etc), so that brought my total # of trades and thus overall profit down, but the winrate is nearly identical. I also closed a few trades early due to various reasons(not liking the price action, seeing support/resistance emerge, etc).
A quick note is that TD's paper trade system fills at the mid price for both stop and limit orders, so I had to subtract the spread from the raw trade values to get the true profit/loss amount for each trade.
I'm heading out of town next week, then after that it'll be time to take this sucker live!

Live Trading Results

I started live-trading this system on 8/10, and almost immediately had a string of losses much longer than either my backtest or demo period. Murphy's law huh? Anyways, that has me spooked so I'm doing a longer backtest before I start risking more real money. It's going to take me a little while due to the volume of trades, but I'll likely make a new post once I feel comfortable with that and start live trading again.
submitted by ForexBorex to Forex [link] [comments]

No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
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Fueling The Us Economy's Middle Market Growth Engine

It has a major presence in New York and different world monetary facilities both out and in of Europe. And if you are the owner of a privately held firm and this data has peaked your interest or even led you to have more questions, then attending a Generational Equity M&A seminar can be a sensible next step. A few hours of your time will provide you with substantial ideas to pursue in order so that you can take advantage of our present seller’s market.

Job Openings Related To Middle Market Investment Bank

It is a mix of equity, mounted deposits, company bonds, liquid funds and authorities funds, among others. Based in your danger urge for food, you can determine how a lot of your cash may be invested in equities via NPS. Debt mutual fund schemes are suitable for traders who want regular returns. They are much less unstable and, therefore, thought of less risky compared to equity funds.
Some of the middle-market banks resemble regional boutiques in that they concentrate on providing services to a specific trade or sector. For instance, one of the extra acknowledged center-market investment banking companies is KBW, an investment bank that focuses on working with monetary services sector companies. Some of the more well-recognized middle-market corporations are Piper Sandler Companies, Cowen Group, and Houlihan Lokey. National full-service center market corporations – Expand their companies to mix funding banking, wealth management, equity analysis, and brokerage and personal fairness companies. Banks are financial institutions offering a breadth of products and services, together with managing deposits, lending, wealth management, forex trade, and funding banking.
Examples of properly-identified elite boutique funding banks are Lazard LLC, Evercore Group LLC, and Moelis & Company. The smallest of the investment banks, each when it comes to agency size and typical deal dimension, are the banks known as regional boutique banks.
This lack of a succession plan, coupled with impending retirement, creates an urgency for these companies to alter arms, and bodes well for traders and corporations to amass, consolidate and develop them. Most senior debt suppliers will wrestle to supply all of the money wanted to fund an acquisition.
It is comprised of corporations that are not giant enough to receive massive bank loans, yet it's too giant to receive small enterprise loans. Upstream movement from a microbusiness to being a center market entity necessitates that you just turn into a manager and learn to manage managers. Therefore, administration and hiring expertise are very important within the lower center market. put their give attention to the decrease center market section and improve proficiency in doing deals in the segment.
The most amount that may be invested in the scheme Rs 15 lakh. At maturity, the investment amount is repaid to the senior citizen. In the occasion of death of senior citizen, the money will be paid to the nominee. SCSS has a five-yr tenure, which could be additional prolonged by three years as soon as the scheme matures.
if you are able to leverage your skills to get an fairness stake someplace you need to be on the trail to more wealth. I'm just curious, but how does the efficient tax come out to 50%? Is it the AMTI that causes each marginal dollar to be so low or what?
On December 1, 2005, Stifel Financial closed on the acquisition of the Legg Mason Capital Markets business from Citigroup Inc. The LM Capital Markets business acquired included investment banking, fairness and glued earnings analysis, equity gross sales and buying and selling, and taxable fastened income gross sales and buying and selling . These assets gave the company substantial research and capital market capabilities and reworked the corporate from a regional agency to a national one. Each of the bulge bracket banks operates internationally and has a large world, in addition to home, presence. Most bulge bracket banks also have industrial and retail banking divisions and generate extra income by cross-promoting monetary merchandise.
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Most regular shoppers received’t want investment banking companies, but for rising companies and excessive-net-value individuals, an funding financial institution may supply distinctive financial services to meet your needs. An investment associate should deliver a spread of experience to the desk including a really strong observe report of execs who have successfully built center market corporations throughout a variety of industries. In an age the place capital has become a commodity, alignment round values quite than valuation alone is more and more essential to the profitable outcome of partaking non-public fairness. Investment banking compensation could not range all that much between working for one of many largest bulge bracket banks as in comparison with a smaller, elite boutique bank. While the bigger banks commonly handle bigger offers, those offers are few and much between smaller deals.

Stifel Employee Reviews

Bank Of China focuses primarily on industrial banking actions similar to deposits and withdrawals, and international exchange. The bank also is even licensed to issue banknotes in Hong Kong and Macau.
We specialize in delivering dependable, creative and compelling financing options to middle market corporations backed by personal equity sponsors. The firm’s credit experience also forms the inspiration of our Late Stage Lending enterprise and our Broadly Syndicated Loan funding program.

Are Investment Bankers Rich

I’m presently 21yrs old & finally transferred into a high 5 undergraduate enterprise program right here in Toronto, previously was learning biology for the mistaken causes. I tend to main in Accounting & Finance + Minors in Computer Science and Applied Statistics + Will be going by way of a rigorous coding bootcamp program. Yes, you might get extra consumer publicity and responsibilities in some teams, but you can additionally get stuck working on a lot of boring, normal sell-facet auctions and personal placements.
Like other funding banks, the advisory companies of Bank of America Merrill Lynch are necessary for corporations looking to increase funds in public markets. When going public, funding bankers help decide the preliminary share value while balancing liquidity and demand.
However, a excessive-return, low-risk mixture in a investment product, unfortunately, does not exist. Most buyers need to make investments in such a method that they get sky-high returns as shortly as potential with out the risk of dropping principal cash.

Middle Market Investment Bank Salaries In The United States

On the downside, there was an especially negative individual within the division who received together with no one. Pay was also mergers and acquisitions advisory very low, with only small cost of residing changes annually. While bonuses increased with longevity, you couldn't construct your salary.
In a mezzanine loan, there might be collateral within the type of a pledge inventory. Step by step instruction on how the professionals on Wall Street worth an organization. certification program, designed to remodel anyone into a world-class financial analyst.
In an actively traded fund, the returns are largely depending on a fund manager's capacity to generate returns. Index funds and trade-traded fund are passively managed, and these observe the underlying index. Equity schemes are categorised based on market-capitalisation or the sectors during which they make investments.
The Central Bank with impact from July 1, 2020 has launched Floating Rate Savings Bond, 2020 . The biggest distinction between earlier 7.seventy five% financial savings bonds and the newly launched floating fee bond is that the interest rate on the newly launched financial savings bond is topic to reset in every six months.
While they typically have locations spanning a single nation, center market banks are rarely found internationally. Full-service funding banks supply a variety of business and funding providers.
Chief Executive’s publications are designed to assist CEOs do their jobs better and run their businesses more effectively. Those that begin doing so now will set up themselves fully in a market that, by design, is much more difficult to oversaturate as a result of its sheer volume.
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Statistical Edge Trading

Statistical Edge Trading

Statistical Edge Trading

Have you ever traded with statistical edge? Our Allen trade talks about backing up the trading network and leveraging it from excellent newspapering. This is a stage that is undermined by many traders but fairly, it can be a crucial factor in boosting your trust and believing in your system. For those interested in this sort of research, you can check out the FTMO Statistical Application.
Trading with a Statistical edge
Although many traders back-test and record their trades to verify the trading system 's feasibility, monitoring and using the data to maximize both your stop loss and profit goal is a tremendous advantage. Two of the most critical pieces of data that I record when reporting trades is the drawdown and the benefit potential.

The drawdown, to be sure, is how far a trade goes against my place before it goes in my favour.

Whereas the benefit potential is the maximum distance from my entry which the trade moves in my favor. It isn't important and it's uncommon, in general, that I actually exit the trade. Yet definitely coming out at or as close as can be.
Firstly, I record my trades in two ways, using screenshots of the charts themselves where I annotate my entry, date, type of trade and all other relevant details related to my methodology, such as strength and weakness analysis , multiple time frame analysis and correlation. I also note on the map the drawdown and benefit potential of the trade.

Then I go through my Excel spreadsheet with main details. See "excel" below.

Excel spreadsheet with main details.

This includes the date, day, session, pair, time, route, entry price, closing price, type of setup, type of entry, type of exit, drawdown, potential for benefit and outcome. I then let excel do all the heavy lifting for myself as I can sort my trades numerous ways, by day, by session, by pair, by route, by type of set-up etc.

But where the really cool stuff is under the "Mind-blowing stats" tab where I have some of the above filterable statistics that will help me to optimize both my stop loss and my benefit goal.

Here is a summary of the specification.

When you use a risk percentage account to calculate your position size (as you should), so the lower the pause, the larger a position size you will trade in. The stop must, therefore, have a high likelihood of remaining. The vast majority of trading books, guides, videos, etc., advise that after a recent high / low swing, the stop will be many pips.

But my trade documents helped me to come up with a statistical advantage for my stoppage placement.

As can be seen in the "Drawdown" tag, Trading my Type 1 BO (breakout out) on GBPAUD, 79.55 percent of the time my drawdown was less than 25 pips, although it was just 81.82 percent at 30 pips and 84.09 percent at 35 pips.

Statistical Edge Trading
So when using a larger pause, an extra loss or 2, the advantage of having a greater size of the place and thereby netting more money makes the extra loss(s) inconsequential.

Furthermore, the income goal can also be optimized.

Looking at the "Profit Potential" connection and remaining on GBPAUD again for my Type 1 BO trades, we can easily see that almost 80 percent of the time, those trades get between 20 and 30 pips.

Statistical Edge Trading (b)
It is a perfect place to take off 1/2 of the spot and push the stop to flat. So we can let the rest of the half run to about 50 pips where 59.09 percent of the trades touch.

Obviously market conditions aren't always the same, so if you can recognise when they are, i.e. linked moves or strengthening or weakening other classes (commodity pairs or safe haven pairs), then you can make educated decisions about how far a trade will go.

Statistical Edge Trading (meme)

I hope this information 's helpful to you.

Eva " Forex " Canares .
Cheers and Profitable Trading to All.

About FTMO -
They fund forex traders. Just Pass their risk management rules and begin trading for their company. They'll provide you capital up to $300k USD for trading the financial markets. 70% of profits you keep and losses are covered by them. How does it work?
How to Become a Funded Forex ,Stocks or CryptoCurrency Trader?
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Has anyone tried Forex robot trading?

What Is a Forex Robot?
These days, it is becoming more and more common for traders to utilize modern methods of technology in their trading and there are many advantages to doing so.
Traders are increasingly likely to use trading systems or software that allows them to automate the trading process — thus reducing the problems of emotional attachment to a trade or a lack of trading discipline. A Forex robot does exactly that and one of the most popular ways to use one is via the MetaTrader 4 platform.
The MetaTrader 4 platform offers a complete solution to a trader’s needs, consisting of charts, news feeds, and more. And, by coding in the native MQL4 programming language, it is also possible to write custom built indicators or even trading strategies — also known as expert advisors.
Free Ex4 to Mq4 decompiler!! Top EA List: https://best-forex-trading-robots.com/
Expert Advisors
An expert advisor (EA) is another name for a Forex robot, one that has been developed to be used on the MetaTrader 4 platform. Since it can be custom built, an expert advisor can be designed to implement any trading strategy or risk management system so long as the designer knows how to code it into the program.
For example, a trader may design an EA to open positions in the market at a certain size after a moving average crossover.
Has anyone tried Forex robot trading? Best-forex-robots
Benefits
The main advantage of using a Forex robot is that it takes the emotion out of trading, which if not addressed, can be a big barrier to many traders. Fear, greed, and stress can build up in manual trading all too easily, leading a trader to lose money and get frustrated with the game.
A robot on the other hand, will implement the chosen strategy flawlessly every time and with a high degree of accuracy. It will also make difficult risk management calculations in the blink of an eye, much faster than a human trader. Not only that, but robots can be designed to trade around the clock and on different markets at once, meaning that you need not have to sit in front of your screen all day and all night.
In short, a Forex robot can take much of the hard work out of trading — that hard work is done beforehand — developing and testing the trading idea.
Limitations
Of course, there are no shortcuts to making money on the Forex markets and working with a Forex robot brings with it its own inherent limitations.
For one thing, Forex markets are fiercely competitive and coming up with a robot that is able to beat the market is a notoriously difficult thing to do.
Indeed, it is not enough to design a robot that works over a couple of weeks data, the robot must work over several months, if not years, of historical data and undergo rigorous statistical testing to prove that it works. Because if a trader cannot be confident that the robot works, they will more than likely abandon it when times get tough.
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Shorting Noobs - Style Adaptions and the Search for Sustainability

Shorting Noobs - Style Adaptions and the Search for Sustainability
Part [1] [2] [3] [4]

So in the first week of this an account initially funded with $10,000 got to around $40,000 / $45,000, but it was wild. The drawdown swings were large. Equity swings were what I would describe as problematic. My broker agreed. I got a call from them and it went a bit like this;

"Hi, Whatthefx (yes, me and the broker are on first name terms). One of your new accounts has done a lot volume this week. I was wondering if you're going to continue to trade so aggressively? Can we expect the same volume this week?"

I replied; "Of course not. I started last week with $10,000 and now there is $40,000. It would be fair to assume I will trade four times as much volume this week".

They advised me if I did this, in the near future we'd be having a discussion about re-evaluating how much leverage the broker would offer me. I told them I could not believe they'd speak to me like this after all we'd been through. "You've changed, man" I ruefully muttered into the phone. He told me risk compliance was getting edgy, and they felt the best solution would be to reduce my leverage. I told them to a hammer everything looks like a nail. They told me this hammer was about to come down.

Long story short, compromises has to be made.

I decided to split accounts and reduce risk acceptance on both of them (dramatically on the larger of the two accounts). I started an account with $25,000 running a very similar but slightly watered down version of the initial strategy. I then started another account with $50,000 and used this to trade against people who consistently bet against trending moves.

Vrs scalpers results:


https://preview.redd.it/f2ixgaz8lsh31.png?width=923&format=png&auto=webp&s=2aa495b2df70e32cd49d7ce6786a8dac652c928c

As a recovered "Trend doubter", I understand the mindset of people who fade the trend too aggressively. There is a fine line between being an effective contrarian and just being dumb enough to think you're smarter than the entire market. When you're the latter, you come to learn the infallible truth in the saying "A fool and his money are soon separated".

I take a bit of time to snoop on those I am reverse copying from. Through some statistical analysis and good old fashioned reading through their feeds on platforms they promote themselves I seek out the ones who have die hard doubt on the existence of strong trends and also with some ingrained belief that the fib levels are irrelevant.

I find the ones most die hard against these things. It's easier to find committed doubters of fibs than it is of trends. I find those who are the most extreme on this bell curve. Some of them are practically evangelical about how sceptical they are of fibs. I take these people and pay particular attention to their trades. Most specifically I run analysis to see how the trades they make at important fib levels perform. I have a few I look at but the most important one for basic trend following is the 61.8% fib (explained in previous post).

I find an extremely high correlation between the people who know so much better than us who like to use fibs and them consistently making losing trades at important fib levels.

https://preview.redd.it/vxu0ehnrlsh31.png?width=266&format=png&auto=webp&s=cc5692b1677ae4a4af1c5ac7c177c4f3cc6680b3

This is all I need to feel confident sticking some money on this. I make some filters to allow me to copy their mistakes and dodge the times they are more likely to be correct. I add some other ways to identify strong trends. I include some aspects of ATR, ADX and MAs. I also do some lot sizes rules to prevent them from martingaling against me. I do not want to let them accumulate larger and larger positions against me on the slight breakouts of the 61.8% level, because there is a high chance of there being a retest of that level. If they close all their positions there, this will give me a net loss.


Vrs trend faders results:

https://preview.redd.it/bz7mp4xelsh31.png?width=913&format=png&auto=webp&s=91f17d291a135a772bbf5048a72b038fcba0c5a4
submitted by whatthefx to Forex [link] [comments]

Is a simple MA cross-over strategy good enough (statistical analysis)?

I am approaching this question from a statistical perspective. I took data for EURUSD from 2017.04.20 to 2018.09.18, on M15 chart. I use a simple MA(5) crossover with price close, and the market data was detrended before applying the strategy.
Buy and Sell signals based on this simple approach led to returns of around 240% and 220%, respectively (yeah, not a typo); p-value for null hypothesis was zero (machine precision level) in each case. Sample distribution turned out to be almost Gaussian (bootstrap method), with a slight tilt to positive mean returns. I assumed 2:1 leverage too, so not risking too much either (1 lot per trade). Entry and exit were decided by MA(5) crossover with price only.
No data mining bias yet. I just took MA(5) just as starters. Where to go from here? Maybe for future, or in some currency pairs these days, where trends are hard to develop, this approach might not work. Some adjustment to MA period might help then (and then I will have to consider data mining bias), or some other range-trading strategy, maybe based on an oscillator like RSI or Stochastics (although I don't trust Stochastics anymore). But this straightforward hypothesis test for MA strategy makes forex trading look quite simple, if I daresay it. I was expecting to be terribly disappointed in the efficacy of such a simple strategy.
Maybe the price for EURUSD in that time was strongly trending, so MA strategy works so spectacularly. But then what about the effect of detrending and Bootstrap theorem? I create 999 resamples from the one sample, and so the sampling distribution was created over 1000 samples with a sample size of 500+ each. Is that not sufficient?
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[EVENT] 2021 People's Bank of China Statement

Press Conference with the Governor of the People's Bank of China 任中国人民银行行长 Yi Gang 易纲 on current monetary and regulatory matters in the People's Republic of China for the year 2021
Dear Ladies and Gentlemen,
I shall be presenting the position of the People's Bank of China on the current forecast for the fiscal year 2021, with emphasis on the growth predicted for the country and the ramifications it has for the monetary policy of the PBOC. Additionally, I shall address the demand for the People's renminbi as a reserve currency for the Federal Republic of India.
Concerning the growth of the economy for 2021, official growth stands at 6,3 percent. We raise our satisfaction with some positive changes have occurred in the structural adjustments of the Chinese economy in previous quarters, but deep problems remain amid uncertainties. While the the trade war with the United States has been officially ended and there has been regulatory and financial reform, we raise concerns with the additional oversight that has been placed on the digital economy and infrastructure of firms operating in the country. We would like to raise - in coordination with the State Council, that the policy is in response to both the U.S. CLOUD Act and European GPDR to which the burden is regrettable.
Of more pressing concern is the slowing growth for the year that has missed the official target of the PBOC and the government. Thus I shall state that the People's Bank will continue the prudent monetary policy that is neither too loose or too tight, and ensure reasonably ample liquidity in the interbank market. However. The Bank shall begin a further stimulus package to address the slowing growth through creating further domestic credit growth and boost consumer demand.
The additional aim will be to allow for easier borrowing for businesses that does not hold substantial non-performing loans that have been flagged to the Ministry of Finance. This relates to the new Supplementary Measures that are now being issued:
Regarding State-Owned Enterprises, credit expansion will delegated by State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC), under guidance by the PBOC.
With this screening policy in place - essentially window guidance, we hope to avoid flooding of inefficient credit creation.
As to the matter of the size of the stimulus, the PBOC shall roll out a $260 billion package, with targeted support for performing small- and medium banks that have has viable credit profiles. Banks that fail to meet this requirement shall be reported to regulators to shore up, with asset sell-offs and NPL write offs - with the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (a percentage of the $144 billion operating budget has been allocated for this write-off, complimented with the National Debt Service allocations as outlined by the Ministry of Finance's projected budget for 2021)
Concerning the state of the renminbi and its valuation, should growth projections worsen, the Bank is willing act robustly in the defence of the currency. Current repo rates shall remain in line and compliment current inflation metrics.
Concerning more fascinating matters, the internationalisation of the renminbi is a policy that we at the PBOC would encourage policy makers to continue upon. Due to the dominance of the American dollar, the US government can issue debt and print money freely. It gains from seigniorage, as people hold dollars for use in transactions. As the world has seen, especially in recent years, control of dollar-clearing systems enables the United States to limit others’ financial access - which is of particular concern for the PBOC. Many global goods, especially commodities, are priced in dollars. These benefits also provide the United States with political gains and soft power. The same can be assumed for the renminbi and China should further relaxation of capital accounts and the not too loose or restricted monetary policy of the PBOC continues as it has.
From 2009, the dollar has held steady at 60% of global reserves over the past decade, after declining from 70%. With the euro area’s troubles, the euro’s share has slipped; developing economies now hold about 24% of their reserves in euros, down from 31% in 2009. Other currencies – Swiss, Australian, Canadian – increased their attractiveness for a time, but their market size is limited and cyclical conditions have dampened some interest. The Japanese yen and British pound will continue to play a modest role, though we remain pessimistic on the role of the British pound should a No Deal Brexit be followed through. SDRs, which represent less than 3% of global reserves, suffer from a lack of private trading, invoicing, borrowing and lending, granted the renminbi has been added to the basket peg in which SDRs are issued by the IMF.
Given the decision of the Indian government to divest from the their dollar holdings, the PBOC shall announce the sell of $20 billion of National Government Bonds to the Reserve bank of India as well as a purchase of $30 billion worth of renminbi to be held in forex reserves.
Due to this measure, we hope to see that the liquidity of the Renminbi expands as international interest picks up, to which the PBOC shall facilitate all currency purchases as well as bond issuance to those who seek a stable investment.
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Always Be Updated With The Latest News When Trading

Always Be Updated With The Latest News When Trading
To make worthwhile investments in foreign exchange, It’s miles critical to don’t forget the economic and political occasions in one of a kind countries. factors that have an impact on the currency quotes are unemployment, the change stability, GDP and the development of the sector of products and services. These types of indicators are used to determine exactly the tendency of a cost inside the quick, medium and long term.
The primary indicators forex trading
It is important to know the information to make worthwhile investments in foreign exchange and as a result assume the upward thrust or fall of a forex.
Screen monetary signs
The fee of a currency relies upon on certain financial signs along with:
  • The unemployment fee
  • The GDP
  • Data of consumption
  • The exchange balance
  • The inflation fee
  • Modifications inside the tertiary area
  • The hobby of the crucial bank
The two most crucial indicators to remember are the hobby price and the extent of change balance that display the difference among the extent of products imported and exported at those quotes.
If the extent of imports increases, the cost of the currency will trend downward. Exports increase the national economic system and revalue the local currency. The hobby charge is a great indicator to measure the financial situation globally. This fee is reviewed monthly by the Fed, the eu financial institution or the financial institution of britain. A higher hobby price way that the usa is in a high-quality economy.

https://preview.redd.it/6k0avday6lz31.jpg?width=3000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=4e76365d474fc2b5987cb4952cf8b0cc74bcc42b
An boom inside the fee draws foreign buyers. statistics on consumption determine the shopping electricity of the populace. accordingly, during the economic disaster of 2009, the usa, confined the recession, their figures for consumption, for that reason offsetting the level of inflation and excessive unemployment.
The indicator of the level of debt
Investors performing long time forex transactions have to affirm the debt ratio of a rustic. A debt index method that the excessive populace incurs debt and invests or consumes extra. However, if human beings avoid stepping into debt in the long term, the USA will pass through an monetary crisis within the coming years.
Observe the results of financial surveys
Investigations and surveys are used to measure the monetary outlook for the coming months. In Europe, the ZEW provides this through studying the various marketplace traits.
Within the usa, Chicago Pmi determines the country companies based totally in Chicago. consequences obtained on this metropolis may be extrapolated to the country wide stage The internet Tic measures the float of cash among the U.S. dollar and sure currencies.
A big dollar buy by way of foreign organizations shows a good sized dynamism of the U.S. economic system. Traders can view the results of surveys of patron self belief within the economic system of his USA. However, the net Tic isn’t a very reliable indicator.
Seek advice from specialised media
Television channels and newspapers dedicated totally to the monetary sector have to be consulted every day. Some channels offer continuous facts on the important thing financials. Their services are available only subscription. buyers may also subscribe to magazines to get informed by using the evaluation of expected tendencies from economic specialists. These diverse journals are to be had at the buying and selling structures.
The trader ought to also examine through other traders. several boards are powered by using heaps of skilled traders and provide loose facts which may be in particular beneficial.
Sooner or later we need to stress the truth that the news substantially influences the foreign exchange market. The investor need to no longer forget about technical analysis to measure the conduct of competing traders. The analysis is based totally on graphs of worldwide trends on the fall or rise of a currency. The quality dealer is able to research the overall monetary facts and technical records to increase an effective strategy. Usually be updated with the state-of-the-art information whilst trading.
submitted by SyedaHabiba to u/SyedaHabiba [link] [comments]

New stars: looking at possible OMG staking revenues with regards to # of transactions instead of volume.

We have an expression in Sweden which translated directly to English becomes “Aim for the stars and you might end up in the tree tops.”. This is my attempt at giving us some new stars to take aim for.
 
I will start by saying that I’m 100 % in OMG and that this is not a technical analysis of the future price movement, nor is it an analysis of OmiseGO’s potential of delivering what they have promised. This is simply a new way of looking at the future rewards to the stakers of OMG.
 
Secondly, this is not a finished product and the approximations that I’ve done can surely be improved by people with more knowledge than me about the subjects. I welcome everyone to correct my mistakes and/or add their knowledge.
 
The reason that I’ve spent the time to research this subject is that I believe that most speculators in this forum are looking at the wrong parameters when trying to calculate future staking returns. They are looking at volume and speculating on which percentage that OMG will take of that volume; I think that we instead should be looking at the number of transactions. The cost of a simple transaction of value from one part to another on a blockchain (Ethereum or OMG) is, as far as I know, not dependent on the size of the value. I believe that the OMG blockchain will have a dynamic fee structure where buying an apple or buying a car will cost the same amount in transaction fees (although payment companies on top of the OMG blockchain might take a fixed percentage for their services, but that won’t affect us OMG stakers).
 
If my assumption above is correct, then we need to figure out how many transactions that OMG might process. So, how many transactions are we talking here? Well, I’ve started now by looking at four different areas of value transactions:
 
  1. Every day purchases
  2. Stock exchange
  3. Money transfers
  4. Forex market
 
 
Every day purchases
 
These are transactions where people use cash or card to purchase some item (buying fruit or a computer). Now, the exact number is impossible to find but we can get some good approximations. According to the 2016 Nilson report there was 227 billion card transactions during 2015 worldwide. [1] But, as we all know, OmiseGO’s plan stretches also to the unbanked and the cash payments. According to Raconteur 85 % of the worlds transactions are still done in cash. [2] Simple math tells us then that
 
A*0.15 = 227 billion -> A = (227 billion)/0.15 = 1.51 trillion payment transactions every year.
 
[This is of course not 100 % accurate since in the parts of the world where there is the least amount of card transactions there is also probably a lot fewer transactions overall. However, I think that we at least are at the right order of magnitude.]
 
 
Stock exchange
 
All the world’s stock exchanges could be rebuilt on top of the OMG blockchain in a more efficient way than before. So, how many transactions is that? This is a hard number to get ahold of and my estimate will probably end up being too low since many transactions never get registered outside of the trading houses. For example: a trading house can make 1 trade on the exchange where it buys 10,000.00 off Stock A, but then it sells it too 100 of their own customers. This last data is the hardest to get ahold of even if the trade data from the exchanges are almost impossible to find as well. According to Nasdaq there is an average of 10.5 million transactions per day on their exchange. [3] Now, The Money Project has published an infographic showing the worlds largest stock exchanges in relative volume to each other and the whole world market; it says that Nasdaq has a 10.79 % share of a global market of $69 trillion. [4] If we assume that there is a linear correlation between volume and number transactions for all the worlds stock exchanges, then we can assume that Nasdaq’s volume percentage of 10.78 is also it’s transactions percentage in relation to the worlds stock markets. This means that the global number of stock transactions is annually
 
B = (252*10.5 million)/0.1078 = $24.5 billion. [The number 252 in the equation is the average number of trading days per year.]
 
 
Money transfer
 
Pure money transfer transactions. One of the leading actors on that market is Western Union which, according to Forbes holds a 15 % market share with 231 million transactions per year. [5] This leads us to the approximation that the total market sees
 
C = (231*10 million)/0.15 = 1.54 billion transactions every year.
 
 
Forex market
 
Now, the forex market is definitely the hardest one to find information about. I posted in /Forex and they were helpful but told me that exact figures would be impossible to find. [6] However, much in the same manner as with the stock markets I was able to reach an approximation which others will have to judge if it’s fair or not. According to the CEO of LMAX exchange they print 1.5 million trades per day [7] which I will use as 1 trade = 1 transaction (same with the stock market) which gives them
 
252*1.5 million = 378 million transactions per year.
 
The website Leaprate.com has reported that LMAX has an average monthly volume of $175 billion [8] which ends up being $2.1 trillion per year. Let’s say that a linear correlation between number of trades and volume exists over all exchanges on the global forex market, again as we did with the stock market. This means that
 
378 million / ”Number of forex transactions globally” = $2.1 trillion/”$Global forex annual volume”.
 
The number of transactions globally is therefore
 
D = 378 million/($2.1 trillion/”$Global forex annual volume”)
 
with the variable being the annual total volume on the global forex market. According to Businessinsider.com the daily global volume is on average $5.1 trillion [9] which means that the annual volume is 252*$5.1 trillion = $1290 trillion which gives us the number of transactions annually on the global Forex market to be
 
D = 231 billion.
 
 
Total number of transactions and what that means in regard to staking
 
The total number of transactions E = A + B + C + D = 1.51 trillion + 24.5 billion + 1.54 billion + 231 billion = 1.77 trillion transactions every year.
 
If anyone wants to do their own calculations and only include certain percentages of the different markets then of course it is easy to add these percentages before their respected market in the equation above. I however, will calculate staking returns based on the premise that 100 % of these markets will be built and thrive on top of the OMG blockchain.
 
The equation for the returns of every OMG staked is pretty easy:
 
$/omg/year = Number of transaction per year*transaction fee / Number of coins staked .
 
The question is of course: what will the transaction fee be? No one can say, but I will use the transaction fee for the Ethereum network as a benchmark. The transaction fees on the Ethereum network varies but a recent low average has been around $0.2 per transaction. [10] Number of staked coins has also been up for debate at various times; 60 % has been thrown around and I’ll use that.
 
Case 1: OMG blockchain charge as much as the Ethereum blockchain does right now
 
$/omg/year = 1.77 trillion*0.2 / 0.6*140 million = $4,214.29
 
Case 2: OMG blockchain charge 10 % of what Ethereum blockchain does right now
 
$/omg/year = 1.77 trillion*0.1*0.2 / 0.6*140 million = $421.43
 
Case 3: OMG blockchain charge 1 % of what Ethereum blockchain does right now
 
$/omg/year = 1.77 trillion*0.01*0.2 / 0.6*140 million = $42.14
 
Again, I would like to invite anyone here to help me and point out any faults in my calculations, approximations and/or assumptions. However, could you also do the new calculations and add your proposed staking returns? I am a full-time student so hopefully the edits can happen in the comments instead of by me. Thanks!
 
References
 
[1] https://www.nilsonreport.com/publication_special_feature_article.php
[2] https://www.raconteur.net/technology/the-decline-of-cash
[3] http://www.nasdaqtrader.com/Trader.aspx?id=DailyMarketSummary
[4] http://money.visualcapitalist.com/all-of-the-worlds-stock-exchanges-by-size/
[5] https://www.forbes.com/sites/hilarykrame2013/05/10/wu-stock-report/#45eefb5b7771
[6] https://www.reddit.com/Forex/comments/7exyzn/does_statistics_exist_regarding_number_of_trades/
[7] https://www.lmax.com/blog/business-and-technology/2013/07/05/average-trade-size-declines-spot-fx/
[8] https://www.leaprate.com/forex/institutional/lmax-revenues-20-2016-27-7-million-monthly-volumes-175-billion/
[9] http://www.businessinsider.com/heres-how-much-currency-is-traded-every-day-2016-9?r=US&IR=T&IR=T
[10] https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/ethereum-transactionfees.html#3m
submitted by jeneman to omise_go [link] [comments]

Is a simple MA cross-over strategy good enough (statistical analysis)?

I am approaching this question from a statistical perspective. I took data for EURUSD from 2017.04.20 to 2018.09.18, on M15 chart. I use a simple MA(5) crossover with price close, and the market data was detrended before applying the strategy.
Buy and Sell signals based on this simple approach led to returns of around 240% and 220%, respectively (yeah, not a typo); p-value for null hypothesis was zero (machine precision level) in each case. Sample distribution turned out to be almost Gaussian (bootstrap method), with a slight tilt to positive mean returns. I assumed 2:1 leverage too, so not risking too much either (1 lot per trade). Entry and exit were decided by MA(5) crossover with price only.
No data mining bias yet. I just took MA(5) just as starters. Where to go from here? Maybe for future, or in some currency pairs these days, where trends are hard to develop, this approach might not work. Some adjustment to MA period might help then (and then I will have to consider data mining bias), or some other range-trading strategy, maybe based on an oscillator like RSI or Stochastics (although I don't trust Stochastics anymore). But this straightforward hypothesis test for MA strategy makes forex trading look quite simple, if I daresay it. I was expecting to be terribly disappointed in the efficacy of such a simple strategy.
Maybe the price for EURUSD in that time was strongly trending, so MA strategy works so spectacularly. But then what about the effect of detrending and Bootstrap theorem? I create 999 resamples from the one sample, and so the sampling distribution was created over 1000 samples with a sample size of 500+ each. Is that not sufficient?
submitted by digitalfakir to algotrading [link] [comments]

What Is Cfd Trading? 7 Benefits Of Cfd Trading You Should Know

What Is Cfd Trading? 7 Benefits Of Cfd Trading You Should Know
What Is Cfd Trading
Among the several existing trading methods, Contract For Difference is one of the most effective ways to earn profits. Millions of people around the world would have entered into a CFD position while reading this phrase. But statistics reveal that half of the trading community is still unaware of the fundamentals and they start trading with very little or no knowledge. So, before you start off with CFD trading, it is highly recommended that you know what CFD trading is and how you can be benefited from it.

WHAT IS CFD TRADING?

The one-liner is, “ CFD Trading is an agreement between two individuals who exchange the difference price between the opening and closing position of a contract”. CFD trading becomes profitable if you are aware of the basics and you are capable of making wise decisions. It has certain important and unique benefits which could be a boon when used appropriately.
  1. GAIN PROFIT IRRESPECTIVE OF THE MARKET’S RISE AND FALL If you are knowledgeable enough to predict the rise and fall of the market, you can earn a fair profit from CFD trading. With the help of tools like indicators, you can predict the movements of the market. If you assume that the price of a commodity may rise, you can go long and buy the required number of units or go short(sell) if you assume that the price may go down. The higher the market moves in the chosen direction, the greater is the profit.
  2. TRADING ON MARGIN CFD trading offers you a low margin requirement feature which means that the capital outlay would be less and the returns would be high. This also means that losses can be huge when the high leverage turns against you due to the market fluctuations.
  3. GAIN ACCESS TO THE BROAD RANGE OF GLOBAL FINANCIAL MARKETS Trading with gold, silver, currencies, metals and other commodities have become possible with the introduction of CFDs. CFD trading helps you gain knowledge about trading different commodities and diversifying your trading portfolio.
  4. TRADE FOREX & CFDs TOGETHER If you have been trading Forex all the time, switching to CFD trading might not be a big issue. Almost all Forex brokers offer CFD trading facility on the same trading platform. You can start trading CFDs with the tools you are already familiar with.
  5. TRADE ENDLESSLY CFD trading markets allow you to avail the market opportunities 24 hours a day, 5 days a week and thus can help you gain greater profits.
  6. FLEXIBLE LOT SIZES Unlike other trading practices, CFD trading offers you the freedom to buy the required number of units that you are comfortable to trade with. You can plan your own strategies and make the maximum out of a trade.
  7. TRADE WITH PRICE MOVEMENTS, NOT THE PHYSICAL COMMODITY There is no physical movement of the commodity in the CFD trading structure. Everything is based only upon the market price. You can buy or sell commodities without having to carry or protect anything physically. CFD Trading serves as a perfect alternative to future contracts and for both long and short-term investors. But it is up to each individual to understand what suits them best and be discerning in their trades so that they can reach dizzying heights in their trading career.
Trade with one of the oldest forex trading companies in Kuwait. With almost two decades in the business of FX trading, we can assure you that you are trading with an experienced, recognized and regulated leading financial services provider in Kuwait.
submitted by alshuaib_financials to u/alshuaib_financials [link] [comments]

How To Trade Forex

How To Trade Forex

How To Trade Forex
Learn The Basics |Advanced Topics | Chart Patterns | Choose The Best Broker
Beware of scam companies! Trade only with a good licensed broker that holds an FCA or ASIC license like these.

USE A BROKER THAT PROVIDES 0.0 pips Spreads and 500:1 Leverage for better trading!
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How does Forex Work?

Forex trading is the simultaneous buying of one currency and selling of another…
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Basic Terminology

Before trading currencies, an investor has to understand the basic terminology of the forex market…
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Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis is the study of the overall economic, financial, political…
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Technical Analysis

Technical analysis is the study of prices over time, with charts being the primary tool…
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Trend Lines

The term ‘trend’ describes the current direction of the financial instrument…
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What is a Technical Indicator

Technical Indicators are a result of mathematical calculations/algorithms…
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Gold Trading

As an investment, gold is the most popular of the precious metals…
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Order Types

A market order is an order to open a buy or sell position at…
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We complete our education centre with a breakdown of Gold Trading and details of the different Order Types.
You can also review our glossary to find brief definitions of various trading and financial terms you may encounter.
Once you have familiarised yourself with the information and concepts, you can open a Demo Trading Account to practice what you have learnt and build on your knowledge and understanding of how to trade successfully. Treat your demo account as you would your real account.
Aprender a operar con Forex | Lernen Sie Forex zu handeln

  1. What is Forex? Think the stock market is huge? Think again. Learn about the LARGEST financial market in the world and how to trade in it.
    1. What Is Forex?Learn about this massively huge financial market where fiat currencies are traded.
    2. What Is Traded In Forex?Currencies are the name of the game. Yes, you can buy and sell currencies against each other as a short-term trade, long-term investment, or something in-between.
    3. Buying And Selling Currency PairsThe first thing that you need to know about forex trading is that currencies are traded in pairs; you can’t buy or sell a currency without another.
    4. Forex Market Size And LiquidityThe Forex market is yuuuuuuuggggeeee! And that comes with a lot of benefits for currency traders!
    5. The Different Ways To Trade ForexSome of the more popular ways that traders participate in the forex market is through the spot market, futures, options, and exchange-traded funds.
  2. Why Trade Forex? Want to know some reasons why traders love the forex market? Read on to find out what makes it so attractive!
    1. Why Trade Forex: Advantages Of Forex TradingLow transaction costs and high liquidity are just a couple of the advantages of the forex market.
    2. Why Trade Forex: Forex vs. StocksNobody likes bullies! Good thing for us, unlike the stock market, there is no one financial institute large enough to corner the forex market!
    3. Why Trade Forex: Forex vs. FuturesThe futures market trades a puny $30 billion per day. Thirty billion? Peanuts compared to the FIVE TRILLION that is traded daily in the forex market!
  3. Who Trades Forex? From money exchangers, to banks, to hedge fund managers, to local Joes like your Uncle Pete – everybody participates in the forex market!
    1. Forex Market StructureBecause there is no centralized market, tight competition between banks normally leads to having the best prices! Boo yeah!
    2. Forex Market PlayersThe forex market is basically comprised of four different groups.
    3. Know Your Forex History!If it wasn’t for the Bretton Woods System (and the great Al Gore), there would be no retail forex trading! Time to brush up on your history!
  4. When Can You Trade Forex? Now that you know who participates in the forex market, it’s time to learn when you can trade!
    1. Forex Trading SessionsJust because the forex market is open 24 hours a day doesn’t mean it’s always active! See how the forex market is broken up into four major trading sessions and which ones provides the most opportunities.
    2. When Can You Trade Forex: Tokyo SessionGodzilla, Nintendo, and sushi! What’s not to like about Tokyo?!? The Tokyo session is sometimes referred to as the Asian session, which is also the session where we start fresh every day!
    3. When Can You Trade Forex: London SessionNot only is London the home of Big Ben, David Beckham, and the Queen, but it’s also considered the forex capital of the world–raking in about 30% of all forex transactions every day!
    4. When Can You Trade Forex: New York SessionNew York baby! The concrete jungle where forex dreams are made of! Just like Asia and Europe, the U.S. is considered one of the top financial centers in the world, so it definitely sees its fair share of action–and then some!
    5. Best Times of Day to Trade ForexTrading is all about volatility and liquidity. Which times of day provide the most dynamic market action and volumes?
    6. Best Days of the Week to Trade ForexEach trader should know when to trade and when NOT to trade. Read on to find out the best and worst times to trade.
  5. How Do You Trade Forex? Now, it’s time to learn HOW to rake in the moolah!
    1. How to Make Money Trading ForexJust like any other market: buy low and sell high…and vice versa. Simple, right!?
    2. Know When to Buy or Sell a Currency PairLet’s start with the very basics. First, what drives the value of a currency?
    3. What is a Pip in Forex?You’ve probably heard of the terms “pips,” “pipettes,” and “lots” thrown around, and here we’re going to explain what they are and show you how their values are calculated.
    4. What is a Lot in Forex?How many units of currency can we trade? What size positions can we trade and what are they called?
    5. Impress Your Date with Forex LingoWanna impress your crush? Here are some forex terms to help you wow that special someone!
    6. Types of Forex Orders“Would you like pips with that?” Okay, not that type of order, but buying and selling currencies can be just as simple with a little practice.
    7. Demo Trade Your Way to SuccessCurrency market behavior is constantly evolving. Trade on demo first to get a lot of the rookie mistakes out of the way before risking live capital. There are no take-backs in the real market.
    8. Forex Trading is NOT a Get-Rich-Quick SchemeWhile possible if you’re a trading genius with ice in your veins and you’re luckier than a lottery winner, building wealth through trading takes time and practice to build the skills and experience needed to be successful.
📷
Via XNTRADES.com
Topics Which Every Trader Must Master.
Or at least know your Chart Patterns
Support and Resistance v.1
Support and Resistance v.2
Elliot Waves Theory
Elliott Waves 101
Harmonic Patterns
Chart Patterns
How to Trade Market Structure
More educational materials from TRESORFX.com and XNTRADES.com

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submitted by TRESORFX to u/TRESORFX [link] [comments]

1.5 Months In: 6300 Views, 50 Subscribers (Write-Up)

On the 24th January 2018 I published my first blog post. Inspired by a few on here, I decided to tell the story of my first 1.5 months.
My blog is about trading financial markets (stocks, forex, crypto), as this is my full-time job. I wouldn't say that it's an oversaturated niche, but it certainly isn't empty. I have somewhat of a sub-niche, in that I have a maths degree and am known for being very statistics oriented.
Statistics:
Backend Stuff:
Content Generation:
This is the base of the blogging pyramid for me. If you don't have content, you don't have blog. Here is how I generate ideas:
Traffic Generation
Subscription Generation:
Going Forward:
I will probably do another update in a couple of months.
For now, I'm really happy with how it is going. My main takeaway is that I have discovered how cathartic writing can be, in amongst my incredibly stressful job. I hope you enjoyed the write-up! Feel free to ask any questions and any critiques!
submitted by EvreuxFX to Blogging [link] [comments]

Automated or Manual Trading? What is better?

Automated or Manual Trading? What is better?

this question keeps many traders busy so let me try to answer this ongoing question.
First, lets have a look at some statistics. Manual traders do not have a good track record at all and most traders end up with a loss. In fact, over 80% of traders lose money. We did an interesting post about this topic.
We believe that a robot simply rules out many manual errors such as wrong entries, over trading, wrong lot size, no plan. The only thing you can not rule out is the market risk. But then, most traders know they are not up for the difficult task to make their money grow.
If you are interested in a free ride to see if automated trading is a smart idea, you should definitely test it before deciding.
To find the best mt4 ea its wise to do a thorough research where we help you.



submitted by iforexrobot to u/iforexrobot [link] [comments]

Is Forex Trading Gambling?

This is a question that is asked a lot and there are many different answers to it. There are also quite a few different ways to look at the question. One way is extremely simple, it is just to ask "Are you a gambler?" If the answer is "Yes", for you Forex trading is gambling. If it is "Maybe", most likely also gambling.

What about those who are more risk conscience, though? Is it still gambling even if you are prudent and use good risk control? After all, it is betting on the direction of the market and that is fundamentally betting on an unknown outcome. This can be defined as gambling.

The way I always like to frame this question is; Does a casino gamble?

They do! On every spin of the wheel, every turn of a card and every yank of a one armed bandit, the casino gambles. It is completely random chance whether or not they will win or lose (even lose BIG) on any one bet they take. Casinos know the law of large numbers. This is what their entire model is based on. They know what the statistical chance of them winning and losing is, they make absolutely no attempt to win all the time. They know they can not. Instead, they ensure they have maximum bet sizes and jackpot payouts so they cap the amount they can lose.

The casino can lose any spin of the wheel, but they are astonishingly unlikely to lose over 100,000 spins of the wheel.

Understanding a casinos success requires understanding of the concept that the casino is not playing to win on any given day, only to be sure to survive each and every day so as to be able to play again the next. They know if they do this, they eventually win. If you walked into a casino with $1 million and wanted to place it all on black, the casino would turn you away. If you walked in with a $1 million wanting to place $1 on black a million times, the casino would set up a suite for you and hand you a lunch menu.

Through this, casinos have taken what is on each individual event gambling and turned it into a business model. Such is the challenge of a trader if they are to be long term successful. You do this through good strategy development (L2A), flawless execution of strategy (L2A) and suitable risk control (L2A).

If you are doing all these things, and you have developed a strategy that has a statistical edge with which you are able to trade over and over until the law of large numbers can take effect, to me the discussion of whether or not trading is gambling becomes really a matter of semantics. You can say it is and say it isn't and both are basically playing with words. You are taking risks to get a return and these are speculative risks. Are speculative risks was a quantifiable edge still gambling? I'll leave it to the word-smiths to figure that out.

My response to this question would be that when you enter into trading, you have two choices. You can be the house, or you can be the punter. You can look to be taking advantage of a known edge, or you can be hoping to be lucky. It takes both of these groups to make a casino, as it does a market. Choose your side.


submitted by inweedwetrust to Forexnoobs [link] [comments]

I Want to be a Forex ... What Does a Forex Do?

So, you heard about Forex and thought it sounded good, huh?
First question before we go any further, are you sure?
The Forex markets can be very lucrative and trading a very rewarding skill to acquire, but it’s not all glitz and glam. Forex trading can be hard. Any sort of trading can be hard and Forex may well be one of the tougher ones. Forex day trading, especially, can have a very steep and expensive learning curve.
When deciding to learn Forex trading, if you are to be ultimately successful you are making a commitment to learn to do something that statistically speaking, extremely few people can do. Many fail in Forex. Most bomb out within the first 6 - 12 months.
I ran into Forex with many hopes and expectations only to crash headlong into a wall of frustration and hard lessons. It has taken me many, many chart hours, study, disappointments, failures and embarrassments to get to where I am now in trading and I still know there are various areas in which I can vastly improve and need to continue to work to do so.
You’re still reading. Good. You may be cut out for this. Let’s talk about what Forex is.
Forex is short for Foreign Exchange market. It is the exchange rates between currencies. If you have ever travelled and exchanged your local currency for your holiday destinations currency, you have done a Forex trade.
The rates between these currencies exchange at is always fluctuating. Five days a week, 24 hours a day, traders speculate on the direction of these fluctuations. As a Forex trader, that is what you are doing.
There are two different ways traders can make their analysis to decide the trades they will make in the Forex markets. One is called technical analysis and the other is called fundamental analysis.
Fundamental analysis is what you may think of traders being, if you are new and just peering into the Forex industry. You may picture people following all the economic reports very closely, knowing to the fifth decimal point how much a global economy is producing, what it’s debts are and closely following monetary policy.
Fundamental analysis is used in Forex, and some big fundamental events everyone tends to know about but it is commonly overshadowed in Forex by technical analysis. Technical analysis is chart reading. Looking for specific patterns that repeat over time that you can develop strategies around.
So it is fair to say that for most Forex traders, what you will be doing if you become a Forex trader is spending a lot of time learning about the different chart patterns and the theory and psychology behind them and how you may be able to make reads on the market based on them.
Your first step is to set up a demo account. This will let you trade with monopoly money. You will not be risking anything and you will be able to get used to the process of placing trades, sizing your positions so you know how much you are risking in your trades and starting to get the hang of assessing the charts and getting to grips with the core concepts of trading.
Now see;
Setting up a demo trading account. (link to be added)
Learning the basics and core concepts of trading. (link to be added)
Setting up a live trading account. (link to be added)
submitted by inweedwetrust to Forexnoobs [link] [comments]

The era of artificial intelligence: how robots manage capital

The era of artificial intelligence: how robots manage capital
Interview with Alexander Tatarsky, creator of the quantum fund
How well do you know artificial intelligence? Perhaps you have never heard of it, or maybe it’s quite the opposite and robots are already managing your capital.
We were able to interview Alexander Tatarsky — an experienced trader, co-founder and financial director of the Mercury Foundation — a fund that manages capital through A.I.! Alexander introduced us to the concept of his organization and explained the unique idea behind the project.

https://preview.redd.it/bulvn62tuw021.jpg?width=700&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=7c6357c83fe7c7afd904a8e9718447801fbdc8a1
Alexander, why did you start trading? How did you start and why did you decide to choose this particular field?
Many people know that the Chinese word “crisis” consists of two hieroglyphs. One means “danger”, and the other one — “opportunity.” I considered a global financial crisis of 2008 an opportunity. That’s when I began my professional career in the financial markets. Before those events, I was always very interested in economics (thanks to my economic education!) and financial markets, but I focused on 2 aspects: first is financial markets as an instrument of global management of peoples and their well-being, second — financial markets as an example of the fundamental laws of nature. I always wanted to get closer to understanding the essence of these processes.
However, until 2008, I was just a curious observer. I read books, watched major events, learned to compare facts. I was running a business that had nothing to do with the markets. The events of 2008 encouraged me to make my first profitable deals. And then I realized that this field is not only about self-development and curiosity — it could also become a source of permanent income. With the right approach, this income can be much higher than in other sectors of the economy. So the choice was made.
What were the reasons for creating an Investment Foundation managed by artificial intelligence?
Anyone who is professionally engaged in money management considers automation at some point. Computers are much more efficient than human when it comes to assets management. Robots are taking over, so it was a logical step for us. From the very beginning, we realized the inferiority of the ready-made solutions on the market and did not even consider using other people’s services. We could use the A.I, and we did. It was actually not even a question, it’s like asking an artist — why are you painting? Because we are the best at managing money.
What is the market share (in particular, on cryptocurrency market) of the investment funds (including funds managed by artificial intelligence) and how do you handle the demand?
If we talk about traditional financial markets, then, according to the latest data, the share of investment funds in the total volume of transactions amounts to 70%. At the same time, quantum funds account for at least 27% of all transactions on US exchanges. As for the cryptocurrency market, they are so riddled with fraud and unrealized projects that we have long since ceased to care about the competitors.
There are many ordinary funds, but 80% of them close in a year and 95% of them — in three. We do not consider them competitors, as we are focused on long-term work. All their clients will eventually come to us. In long-term, the manual traders do not stand a chance against the robot.
Are there any companies similar to yours in the world?
Yes, sure. In our industry, only a few succeeded in achieving the degree of automation that we have. The most successful of our colleagues use qualitatively different algorithms that still require regular manual testing and customization. In most cases, those “algorithm factories” constantly have to adapt to the new market conditions. Our algorithms require human participation only at the development stage. Simply put, in most cases, operators with remote controls always follow their robots, but our robot can walk on its own.
The market offers a huge number of different robots that promise to increase your capital in Forex, binary options, cryptocurrency. How are you different from them? Is it possible to earn money with such robots?
Yes, certainly. If you are good at trading and investing. If you have clear money management rules backed by math. If not, you can only lose. And robots have one more limitation — they cannot bring you the profit all the time. Such robots offer a huge number of strategies, half of which is profitable, and the other half is not. Because a person is ultimately responsible for choosing strategies. That is, it is not the robot that makes the decisions, but the user who sets the trading rules. In some cases, it helps to earn quickly, and in others — to lose quickly. Such robots do not guarantee earnings, they only ensure fast trading. We have a radically different approach. Bruce Lee said: “I fear not the man who has practiced 10,000 kicks once, but I fear the man who had practiced one kick 10,000 times”. Therefore, instead of ten thousand strategies, we have been developing only one strategy for several years.
The robots you are talking about are the first level. There are many of them and to me they are useless. Among our competitors, there are funds that trade in traditional markets using second-level robots. There are not many of them, but they all deliver consistently good results. One of the leaders in our industry is the Medallion Foundation, created by Renaissance Technologies. For several decades, their mathematical model has been continuously multiplying their capital.
We consistently implement the same model of asset management, completely removing a person from decision-making process. Development will take a few more years, but even now, our robot is already trading at the professional level. The robot needs a person only for controlling and learning new functions.
Some believe that technical analysis does not apply to cryptocurrency, what do you think about this statement?
I actually do not care; it is rather a question of how competent is the person who said this. If it works for you, you can use it. I think you will agree that a professional can play even on one string, and the amateur can find a thousand reasons to give up. The only thing I can do is ask in return — what can the market offer instead of technical analysis? Intuitive news trading? Fundamental analysis? Neural network?
Technical analysis is a complex discipline and it takes a lot of time and mental strength to fully master it. It could take a trader 10 years to learn it. Not everyone succeeds, so technical analysis does not work for everyone.
I favor a more specific approach: if it doesn’t work for someone, they should figure out why, because it is working for us quite well.
Where does your Foundation operate?
We advertise ourselves as a global foundation. In today’s world, good business has to be global. Among our clients are representatives of the Russian Federation, the European Union, Great Britain and China. We continue to expand our reach. As for trade, over the next 6 months we will be able to manage capital on all largest exchanges of the world.
Why is there a minimum deposit amount of $ 10,000?
There are several reasons. First, we need funds to maintain client accounts. We do not charge a monthly fee, only a percentage of the profits. Therefore, the size of the deposit has a lower limit.
Second, $10k is not much for our target audience. It also acts as a filter that shows the solvency and how serious the intentions of a potential client are. We do not target the mass market and do not deal with dumping. On the contrary, we provide long-term, high-quality services for those who can afford it.
Third, the robot independently manages risks and simultaneously controls all portfolios. We don’t like it if someone can’t enter the position because the share calculated for him by the robot is not allowed on the exchange due to restrictions.
Are there any differences in the management of different amounts of investment? If yes, what are they and are there any similarities in the management of investments of one quantitative segment?
Our job is to describe all the differences with strict mathematical formulas and test them thousands of times under all possible conditions. Therefore, there is no big difference for us between a 5 mln purchase or 5k purchase. Everything is described, tested, calculated, everything works.
Differences in the management of large capital are even more drastic. The psychological factor in this case becomes critical. The same trader managing a demo account or a million dollar account will behave like two completely different people and make fundamentally different decisions. Our task is to completely eliminate the human factor from the money management process.
What are the chances for new instruments to get into the Foundation’s portfolio? What is the basis of the selection of certain tools? Are there any common priority tools for different segments of investors?
Any promising liquid instrument can be included in the portfolio of the Foundation, and the choice depends on many factors. The robot evaluates and filters the instrument on the basis of special algorithms and determines the share of an asset in the portfolio based on the results of the evaluation. All decisions must be mathematically justified, taking into account the analysis of the maximum possible amount of data. The more data on the instrument we have, the higher the quality of the decisions made and the share of the instrument in the portfolio. The choice does not depend on the category of investor. If the instrument is promising and liquid, all our clients will get profit.
Can you tell more about the terms of settlements between the Foundations and investors?
If someone in our market guarantees you a good profit and even specifies when you could get it, then I in turn guarantee that this is a fraud. We are most interested in customer profits, as this is the only way to offset the costs of managing his account. Imagine the following situation:
The new client opened a 10k deposit and a month later, he had a total of 12k in his account. At the beginning of next month, we will ask you to transfer us 1k as a fee. 11k remains on his account, but a month later, suppose, unsuccessful deals were made and there is 10k on his account again. In this case, we do not require any payments until the deposit exceeds 11k.
Suppose a month later he has 12k again. Then we will charge 50% of the difference between 11k and 12k, i.e. $500. The fact that the entire team of our foundation has long transferred the management of all its assets to our robot could also count as a guarantee. We have a direct motivation to make trading as successful as possible. We do not use the services of other funds or managers. And the second fact is that the portfolios of all clients, including our personal ones, are managed simultaneously.
Can you share the success stories of the Foundation?
We want to implement a demo account for this purpose. We plan to fill it with transactions and statistics from 2017, copied from real accounts, but without disclosing personal data. The demo-account will include a history of the average client from the beginning of 2017.
It will explain how the robot trades and what profit you can expect from it.
Do you believe that private investors, to some extent, are competitors to investment funds? What, in your opinion, is it more efficient and profitable: being a private investor or investing with funds?
No, we consider them not competitors, but clients. The vast majority of our clients already have experience in investing. Beginners often think they are the smartest, that they don’t need to pay someone 50% of the income when they can easily buy and sell themselves. I admit that in the short run a private investor can earn more than a robot — but definitely not over a long period. The robot ensures a stable result day after day, year after year, while people are prone to stress, illness and psychological weakness.
Also, funds, compared with private investors, have more compelling ratio of risk and return. At some time, a private investor may gain the same profit as a fund. However, the fund will achieve the same profit with much less risk. My money is controlled by a robot, although I believe in my capabilities as a trader.
Does the Foundation have an affiliate program?
Yes, we have an affiliate program, and at the same time, we are interested in collaborating with specialists for mutually beneficial cooperation. For example, we could consider providing service for the service for really good experts in design, advertising and marketing. If you have such specialists, let them send me their proposals and CVs. See contact details on our website.
What kind of future do you see for ordinary investment funds and funds like the Mercury Foundation?
It is clear to me that the share of funds managed by robots will grow steadily. Most likely, in a couple of decades only old-timers will manage money manually.
Robotization applies to all spheres of life and investment has already come into play. For example, the head of Japan’s Government Pension Investment Fund — the world’s largest pension fund — believes that artificial intelligence will soon completely replace asset managers. And I fully agree with him.
And the largest hedge fund Bridgewater Associates is developing a decision-making algorithm that can replace all management personnel over time.
How do you look at the cryptocurrency market from a global perspective? Will the Bitcoin climb to 20,000$ again? And what will happen to the altcoins?
If we talk about the long term prospect, like 3–5–7–10 years, then I’ll say that today we see the early stage of the cryptocurrency market. Over time, its capitalization will be measured in trillions of dollars. The best projects of this field will become an integral part of our lives. Many of them will become new Google, Facebook, Apple and Amazon.
However, this will happen gradually. In order to become a mature sector of the economy, this market will have to go through many challenges. It will face issues of legislative regulation and technical problems. The scaling and bandwidth issues of most networks are still relevant, as well as legal issues. Most states are just beginning to explore the risks and opportunities associated with these technologies. And the promotion of such technologies is still very dependent on states and supranational bodies. If we talk about the short and medium terms, the prospects are not very bright.
I think that in the near future the bitcoin will certainly not reach the 20,000$ mark. We are witnessing the strongest bear market and must act accordingly. The time for positive medium-term forecasts has not yet come. The industry was severely overcrowded in 2017. There was too much hot money, many economically unfeasible projects and excessively high expectations. The market will need time to stabilize and consolidate. Most likely, we are in for a rather complicated and dangerous period of instability in the market. Obviously, this will be accompanied by some cleansing of the market from weak, incompetent and unclaimed participants.
This is a necessary stage on the path towards development. I think that 80% of altcoins known to us will depreciate and disappear in the next year or two for objective reasons. It will be a time of natural selection. However, strong players will only strengthen their positions in the market. Unfortunately, there will not be many of them. Therefore, in the near future, all investors will need to take a good care of the management of their portfolios. Despite the rather grim short-term and medium-term expectations, there will be some positive developments on the market. Some cryptocurrencies are likely to exceed their all-time peaks next year. And some will just look stronger than the market. This will be enough to generate profitability even under such difficult conditions. Therefore, the main task for the near future is to manage risks in a competent and very conservative manner and select the best ones on the market for investments.
From a professional point of view, what would you wish to partners of our club?
Depends on their goals. If they invest for the sake of emotions, then I wish them good luck and health. If they do it to earn money, I advise you to consult with professionals. This applies not only to investments, but also to any area of life. If you want the task to be solved as accurately as possible — always contact the best professionals available. And always keep learning. Your knowledge is your most reliable asset.
What books would you recommend for beginner traders?
If you decide that you are ready to turn trading into your profession, then start eagerly exploring everything available to you. Everything about financial markets, about macroeconomics, about psychology, about analysis and forecasting. Do not forget that money management skills play a huge role here. Ralph Vince will help you figure it out. Even if your analysis of the markets is very good, you will lose everything eventually if your money management skills are subpar. Now is a great time to learn, you have hundreds and thousands of books available on all aspects of this profession. Someone will enjoy the works of John J. Murphy or Jack Schwager, someone will learn from William D. Gann or Robert Prechter. And remember: knowledge is more important than capital!
We thank Alexander for such a detailed story about the Foundation, as well as for his sincere desire to share his opinions and forecasts. If you want to entrust the management of your funds to the Mercury Foundation, type “I want to invest in the Mercury Foundation” in the personal messages of the group.
submitted by Golden_Island_Club to u/Golden_Island_Club [link] [comments]

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