Why Countries Hold Foreign Exchange Reserves

[Econ] Can You Not Die For One Second?

[M] This meme I made describes how I feel right now, why can’t my economy just be normal and just function, very upsetting. [/M]
The Russian economy is in freefall, which is quite an unfortunate problem to say the least. After experiencing minor growth for the past two years, the economy has decided to kill itself, which can be quite an issue when unemployment skyrockets to 22%, and the value of the rouble drops faster than Saudi Arabia’s chance of not being stuck in an eternal civil war. Taking experience from the 2008-2009 and the 2014-2017 Russian financial crises, we are well prepared to restore economic order to the country. This must be done quickly, as the longer we stall around, the more our people shall suffer, and the odds of escaping this pit of economic despair shrink. To escape this financial crisis, there are three main fields that need to be addressed extensively to prevent the economy from detonating on itself. The first field being social welfare and the lives of the people within Russia. With unemployment at 22%, the people of Russia will be suffering, and if we are to emerge from this crisis, we need to work with them and ensure their safety and wellbeing to recover faster. The second field is the rouble, and the general state of the economy. The value of the rouble has skyrocketed, and inflation is running rampant, which if this is allowed to continue, will decimate our economy even more, so this must be brought under control as soon as possible. Furthermore, many businesses and factories in the country have slashed employees and have almost gone out of business themself, so drastic action needs to be taken there. Finally, the final field being the roots of the crisis, corruption, and the sanctions on Russia from the west. The roots of the problem need to be pruned so that a disaster like this never happens again.
Russia is stuck between a rock and a hard place right now, but this is our trying moment. If we emerge from this disaster, we will come out stronger than ever before, and will become closer as a country, showing that Russia is the only way forward. Through cooperation between the people and the government, we will make it through this crisis.
Field One: Welfare
One of the key fields of this crisis that needs to be addressed is the welfare of the people. Unemployment is at a record 22%, and this must be addressed before anything else can be done. With this many people unemployed and not able to get jobs, this will cause havoc all across Russia as people will struggle to make ends meet in terms of living their lives. To counteract the immediate issues that this will cause, food, shelter, and other amenities for people need to be secured and guaranteed. First off, guaranteeing food for all people who are unable to afford it or acquire it while being unemployed. In recent years our production of all agricultural goods has skyrocketed due to the introduction of GMOs, so we can provide government “soup kitchens” for the unemployed to come and reliably get food. The government will provide the farmers with money for their crops, and in return the food can be placed into these free places for people to eat, therefore avoiding the concern of people starving. Housing will not be as critical of an issue, as there is state housing available, but it is limited in capacity, so something must still be done. This issue can be solved with the issue of unemployment, which I will elaborate on further. Essentially, new state housing will be built in all places that need housing for the unemployed, and this can provide temporary residences for the people to stay out of the elements when the time comes. As for things like health care and such, these are provided by the government, and due to the recession, funding for them will be raised to account for the inevitable rise in human needs.
To place a major dent in the issue of unemployment, much with what the United States did during the 1930s during the Great Depression, we will be taking a leaf out of their book and creating a plethora of new programs. The major program however, will be the program known as Rehabilitation Russia, which will revolve around infrastructure improvements all across Russia, and constructing new buildings as well. This ties into building new state housing, and draws inspiration from the programs from the American New Deal in the 1930s, namely the Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, and the Public Works Administration. All of these programs focused on providing work to unemployed people, and working on infrastructure around the country. This same principle can be applied in Russia, hopefully to the same degree of success. The temporary jobs granted through these programs can provide enough time for the factories that these people were laid off from to be up and running again. With all of this in place, this can grant additional benefit to Russia while also ensuring that these people do not go without jobs. While not everyone will get a job from these programs, it will stem the major flow of unemployment for the meantime, and hopefully grant enough time for the major sources of employment to reopen.
Additionally, for those who are unemployed, the current unemployment benefits are nowhere close to being enough to allow a person to survive. Per month currently, each person only gets around 12-80$ of unemployment money, which is insultingly low. In this recession, with a large number of people in unemployment, this number needs to be increased drastically. To aid the people who are unemployed, the minimum amount of money that can be granted per month will be raised to $150 USD, and the maximum will be raised to $960 USD, which depends on the lifestyle of each person. Someone who has a large family will receive the larger benefit, and someone who is alone will be granted the smaller funds. By raising the unemployment benefits for the recession, this will allow for the people of Russia to still be able to actually survive during these uncertain times.
The funding needed for this will come from slashing other budgets across the scale, and from loans from the Central Bank of Russia. These loans, of course, will be eventually repaid once the recession is over, but something must be done in the meantime to provide the people with a form of welfare and the means to survive.
Field Two: The Economy:
The rouble is in freefall, and the economy is about to be hit by a large train of shinkage, which is quite an issue to summarize. The first thing that must be done for the economy will be to stabilize the rouble. To stabilize the rouble, just like in 2014, the Central Bank of Russia will withdraw $5 billion USD to purchase roubles in the Russian economy to work on stabilizing the currency. Due to the large reserves of the Russian Federation, this can easily be accomplished, and should be more than enough towards stabilizing the rouble. This being done will go a long way towards climbing out the recession, as the stabilization of the rouble will bring back confidence in the economy. To help revive the economy, a government bailout program will be the way that the economy is saved. Russia has extensive reserves of foreign currencies (henceforth referred to as forex reserves) that we have been saving for an event like this for sometime, and now is the time to use them. While $5 billion USD from our forex reserves is being spent to prop up the rouble, this will not be enough to stabilize the economy totally. Therefore a bailout program on a massive scale is required, and the estimated total cost of the government program is $200 billion USD. Around $100-150 billion of this can be gained domestically through raising the VAT and other taxes, while also dipping into our forex reserves and slashing the budget of other ministries. The rest of this money, however, will be given as a bailout loan from the IMF, depending on how much they are willing to give us. This government bailout will be critical to prevent the entire country from entering further economic collapse, and will give us a swift rebound. Where the money goes for the bailouts, however, will be very important as the money is limited as to where it will go. Therefore the money will mainly be focused on reopening factories and bringing back old job positions before the recession. Furthermore, money will also be needed to bailout other important companies that went under in the recession, so focusing on other businesses other than manufacturing is also important, as more places other than that went under. Small businesses in particular are quite important as large numbers of them went under during the crisis, so further bailouts for them are needed. The money will be divided as follows, $100 billion towards manufacturing bailouts as this sector of the economy was the hardest hit from the recession, $50 billion for small businesses, as they were also hit particularly hard, and $50 billion for other sectors of the economy that were hit, but not as hard as the previously mentioned ones. Through these targeted bailouts and financial measures, this should stem the flow from the recession. These measures emanate those from both the 2008-2009 and the 2014-2017 financial crises, and things that worked then will work now.
Acquiring the funding for the bailouts domestically, however, will be difficult, and drastic measures must be taken to ensure this. The value added tax in Russia in particular will be raised from 20% up to 27% for the foreseeable future until the financial crisis has passed, and then past then it will be restored to the normal levels. In particular, the taxes on natural resource extracting will be raised up 2% from whichever level it was previously (this is done because the rates fluctuate for each resource and I don’t want to spend 3 hours writing down each and every one). Through both of these specific taxes being raised, the money from this will be enough to enable the bailout measure to be mostly be funded domestically, rather than through IMF loans. The raising of these taxes is only a temporary measure, and once the recession is over, they will go back to their standard levels so as not to make our citizens' lives even more difficult.
Field Three: The Roots of the Crisis
Despite having extensive measures to stop a crisis like this from even happening, they were not enough to escape the roots of the problems that led to this happening. Corruption and sanctions from the EU were the drivers of this entire recession, and something must be done to combat each and every one of them. No more measures to just delay the inevitable, these issues all right here stop this year, or the next year, Russia will no longer play victim towards the whims of the roots. Action will be taken, and these issues will cease to exist.
Corruption is something that Vladimir Putin has already touched upon at an earlier time, but this time more must be done. Anti-corruption courts were already empowered, and corruption in various different sectors of the government was dealt with to remove the epidemic of bribery that existed within the country. However, one part of corruption that has not been dealt with was tax fraud and tax evasion, which now more than ever is something that needs to be clamped down on. Following the model of the United State’s Internal Revenue Service (IRS), we can mimic their actions to catch those who attempt to deprive the government of their taxes. Russia has a right rate of tax evasion and tax fraud, and by checking over reports sent by their employers and other third parties, and comparing it to their taxes, we can catch people who commit tax fraud. This is an issue that Vladmir Putin feels strongly about, so he will be personally expecting results from this now, and in the future. By attacking those who commit tax fraud and tax evasion, we can also provide the government with more revenue that is sorely needed at this time.
Sanctions from the EU, however, have already been lifted significantly, and this will serve as the rallying cause for our economy. With the aid of European trade coming in, this can serve to assist our economy in climbing out of the recession. While this is not agreeable for our policy, this is something that must be done to ensure the economy does not suffer anymore than it has to. In the future, once the recession is over however, Russia will return to its former strength and prosper once again.
Government interventions into the recession that are swift and precise can help bring about an end to this recession sooner and better. Following methods that worked during the last recessions and financial crises, Russia can escape this calamity stronger than before.
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Inflation, Gauge Symmetry, and the big Guh.

Inflation, Gauge Symmetry, and the big Guh.
Sup retards, back at it with the DD/macro.
scroll to the rain man stuff after the crayons if you don't care about the why or how.
TLDR:
June 19 $250 SPY puts
May 20 $4 USO puts
SPY under 150 by January next year.

So I was going about my business, trying to not $ROPE myself as my sweet tendies I made during the waterfall of March have evaporated, however, I heard that the fed was adding another $2.3T in monopoly money to the bankers pile specifically to help facilitate these loan programs being rolled out.
In short, they are backing these dumb-ass, zero recourse, federally mandated, loans with printing press money.
But cumguzzler OP, your title is about inflation and guage simp--try, why are you talking about the fed #ban.
Well, when you print money it is an inflationary action in theory. Let me explain.

EDUMACATION TIME

What is inflation? Inflation is the sustained increase in the price level in goods and services. Inflation is derived from a general price index, and in the US, from the consumer price index. Knowing that inflation is an outcome, not a set policy is very important. Inflation is a measurement after the fact, much like your technical astrology indicators. (**ps, use order flow in your TA you wizards**)
HOWEVER, the actual act of buying bundles of these loans does not directly impact inflation.
Now what is Gauge symmetry? Gauge symmetry is a function of math and theoretical physics that can be applied to finance models. What a gauge is, is a measurement. Gauge symmetry is when the underlying variable of something changes, however, we do not observe that variable change.
A great example of this is if you and a friend are moving, and your friend is holding a box of tendies. The box is a cube, equal on all sides. If you turn away for a moment and she rotates the cube 90 degrees while you are not looking, and you look back - you would have no idea the cube was rotated. There was a very real change in the position of the cube in relation to space-time. Your friend acted on it. But you didn't measure it, in fact it would be impossible for you to determine if the box was changed at all if you weren't observing it. That movement of the box where you didn't observe it, is called gauge transformation and happens literally more then JPow fucks my mom in quantum physics. The object observably exactly the same even though it is not physically the same. The act of it existing as an observably the same box is gauge symmetry - it is by observation symmetrical.
Why this is important, is that fiat money doesn't have any absolute meaning. The value of $1 is arbitrary. furthermore, Inflation is a Guage symmetry. Inflation has no real impact on the real value of the underlying goods and services, but rather serves as a metric to measure the shift of value across a timeline.
When JPow starts pluggin' your mom along with all these balance sheets, there is a gauge symmetry event happening. The money he is printing is entering the system (gauge transformation), this isn't an issue if all pricing against the USD get shifted equally, however, the market is not accounting for this money because we don't have real-time data on what is being applied where, we only get a slow drip in terms of weekly and monthly reports. WE HAVE OUR EYES CLOSED. This is a gauge symmetry event.
When this happens in real terms, the market becomes dislocated from its real value price. Well how do we know there is a dislocation?
"YoU JuSt SaId tHe UnDeRlYiNg VaLuE iZ AbStRaCkKt HuRr QE aNd MaRkEtS Iz ComPlEx ReAd A TeXtBuK AbOuT FrAcTiOnAl ReSErVe BanKiNg YoU NeRd." - **anyone rationalizing the bull run**
We can look at Forex you fish.
USD lives in a bubble. The Yen is in a bubble, the RMB is in a bubble, and we exchange with each other. the Jap central bank has little effect on the CPI index (cost of goods and services) of the US. If the Yen prints a gazillion dollars, the USD is not effected EXCEPT in its exchange rate. YEN:USD would see a sizeable differential the more Yen is printed and vise-versa.
So NOW instead of JPow getting away with plowing your girlfriend, we can catch the bitch.
Instead of looking at the gauge transformation at face value and then giving up because it is symmetrical output, we can look and see if this gauge symmetry carries over to the foreign exchange market. Well guess what happens when you look at the value of the USD against foreign currencies.
Consistent uncertainty during the fed operations. Meaning the market of banks that partake in FX swaps don't know where to spot the USD. Generally a very very bad thing.
Value of the USD to Euro 2017-2020, notice the slow decline, then the chaos at the end
Above is the value of the USD to Euro, notice the sloping decline. The dollar has been growing weaker since 2017. At the end you see our present issues, lets #ENHANCE
USD to Euro, January 2020 to Present
When you see those spikes, those are days in between Fed action. The value of the US goes up when the fed doesn't print because people aren't spending. Non-spending is a deflationary event and has a direct impact on the CPI. However, each drop when you line up the dates, was a date of Fed spending.
Lets look outside of the Eurozone.

This is the RMB to USD. Yes China manipulates, but look at the end of the graph
China manipulated rates early in 2018 however you can see the steady incline upward towards the of 2018. More specifically, lets look at it since December.
RMB value against USD, January to Now
You Can see the Chinese RMB has been gaining steam since December, even with Chinese production falling off a cliff all through this pandemic.

What this rain man level autism means for the economy.

Looking across the board at Forex we can see the USD having a schizo panic attack jumping up and down like me at a mathematics lecture.
But what does all this gauge BDSM and shit have to do with the markets? Well it shows 1 of 3 things are occuring.
  1. The fed is printing money to offset deflationary pressures of the economy being fuk for the past month, and therefore all this printing is offset by the loss of liquidity throughout the system and we are all retared. (SECRET: THIS IS WHAT ALL THE INSTITUTIONS THINK IS HAPPENING AND WE WILL ALL BE FINE.)
  2. The deflationary event is overplayed, and JPow just is nailing his coffin together. This would result in long term hyperinflation similiar to the Weimar republic. The only hedge against this is to load up on strong currency that do not manipulate and have enough distance from US markets that they can have some safety (ironically the Ruble is the safest currency. Low link to the USD and not influenced by China, and on discount rn)
  3. The gauge transformation is actually not as severe as they are blurting out, the fed does not pass go, does not actually print 10 Trillion dollars, and this was all a marketing ploy to not get Trump involved and prop markets. In this case, the real deflationary event is real, the USD red rockets harder then my cock and we end up market-wise at a very high asset price in relation to real value. This one is most dangerous because it increases the real value of debt and has mass dislocation between real value and market cap. You took debt at a fixed interest rate and a fixed principal, this would cause the biggest GUH in history when all of a sudden you are $100 million in debt and your revenue was $50 million a year ago, but now is only $25 million. That $100 million in debt is still $100 million and now you have a credit crisis because past values of money were inflated. This spirals into a large scale solvency crisis of any company utilizing current growth methodology (levering up to your tits in debt)
In only 1 of these 3 scenarios do we see any sort of "good" outcome? That would be the offset of deflationary pressures.
It is very important to understand that inflation is only a measurement, and itself does not denote value of real goods and services.

Option 1 of a print fiesta that works (something similar to 1981-82) seems possible. A similar environment and reaction occured in the early 80s when the government brute-forced a bull run using these same offset theorems but in that situation, Volker at the fed had interest rates at 21.5% and had 20% to come down to stimulate the inflationary reaction.
Long term this would just lever up more debt and expanded the real wealth gap over time because we kicked the can down the road another 15 years. If that happens again socioeconomically I don't see capitalism surviving (yeah Im on my high horse get over it). This is the option that many fiscal policymakers and talking heads abide by and the reason why the markets are green. However, it is really just kicking it down the road and expanding real wealth inequality. You think Bernie Sanders is bad, wait until homes cost $3million dollars in Kentucky and AOC Jr comes around.

If we get option 2, we see hyperinflation and we turn into Zimbabwe, which is great, I've always wanted to see Africa. Long term we could push interest rate back to 1980 Volker levels and slowly revalue the US against real value commodities already pegged to the USD like oil. This would be a short term shock but because of international reliance on the USD system, we could slowly de-lever this inflation over 2-3 years and be back to normal capacity although the markets would blow their O-ring. Recession yes, but no long term depression.

If we get option 3, the worst long term option in my opinion, basically any company with any revolver line drawn down when that hits is going to go under, private equity won't touch it with a 20ft stick because cashflows couldn't possibly handle the debt on the end of the lever, and we see mass long term unemployment. The only way out of the spiral of option three is inflationary pressure from the fed+government, but because we are already so far down the rabbit hole at the current moment there's no fucking way we could print another 10 trillion. USD treasuries couldn't handle the guh and we would essentially be functionally forced into a long term (7-10 year) depression because nothing anyone could do would delever the value of the dollar. This would result in the long term collapse of the United States as a world power and would render us like Russia in 1991.

Thank you for coming to my ted talk.
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How The Government Can Get 400,000 cr. to fight the Covid Slowdown

It’s obvious now that the lockdown will hurt India’s economy. And just as other countries are doing, we’ll need big stimulus to start pushing it back into gear. There’s a number of things that this process will involve:
Old businesses can take time to come back to life. Because workers would have migrated, supply chains disrupted etc. They will need help to survive through a time when their factories or offices are shut, and to have paid intermediate salaries or rent.
New businesses will have to be encouraged. Just as some businesses will need help, some of those will die. And those businesses will have to be replaced by others who are new and just getting in. Think of the barber shop that’s shut because it couldn’t pay rent for two months, but then people in the area will still need haircuts.
Giving people and small businesses money directly into their accounts will probably become a necessity, to encourage people to spend or to pay for some of the damage caused due to the lockdown.
The government will have to kickstart spending in a very large way – from better healthcare, to more infrastructure (to provide job) or simply to allow for the economy to rise again.
This costs a ton of money. A rough estimate would be, say, Rs. 400,000 cr. The government doesn’t have this kind of money right now, and raising it by selling assets or issuing debt is enormously difficult. Because the debt it has is already quite large, though not as much compared to the western governments nowadays. However, it doesn’t need to take more debt. There’s money the government rightfully owns which sits idle in a very specific place.
Here’s how it can get Rs. 400,000 cr. now.
This kind of money doesn’t grow on trees, so what nonsense is this, Deepak? (I can hear you think) But bear with me, because I’ve thought this through. The money may not grow on trees, but there’s one big mega uncle who prints it, and generates a large amount of profit. It’s called the RBI. We have written earlier that the RBI has way too much money sitting in its balance sheet that it shouldn’t have. These are called “reserves” (very different from forex reserves). Read: The RBI is hoarding too much capital. Essentially, these are very large numbers of retained earnings, that has gone up even more now with this crisis. The extra earnings can be given back to the government, which can then spend it. Now, RBI makes a lot of money from multiple sources:
It has nearly 10 lakh crore worth of government bonds, which, at 6.5% will give it roughly 65,000 cr. in interest per year.
It also has, now, 35 lakh crores of Forex assets, (lets not call them “reserves” yet) , up over 6 lakh crores in the year. Yes, the RBI has bought a truckload of dollars this year.
The forex reserves earned them over 74,000 cr. last year, and we expect this year to be a little more – probably 90,000 cr. all things considered.
That is an income of 155,000 cr. already.
Apart from this there is a big other benefit. Now the RBI owns all these dollars – it bought them when the rupee was lower (on average, probably Rs. 55 or so). When the dollar depreciates, to balance the accounts, the difference is placed in a Currency and Gold Revaluation Account (CGRA).
The CGRA already had over Rs. 6 lakh crores last year.
This year, considering the RBI has 450 billion dollars in foreign assets, that will add Rs. 4-5 per dollar as revaluation profit – around Rs. 200,000 cr. more in the CGRA.
Due to accounting changes, and due to sales of dollars (around $30 billion in the full year) we should see around Rs. 60,000 cr. as a realized capital gain this year with the RBI.
For details, here’s a good Ananth Narayan article, but note that I simply do not agree that such a profit is not a real profit – it’s as real as any rupee printed.
The RBI doesn’t spend much: 7,000 cr. on employees, 5000 cr. on printing currency and this time, probably 10,000 cr. on payment of interest.
What are you saying Deepak? All these big numbers….
Okay, ignore the nitty gritties. Simply put, RBI has a potential profit, this year, of around Rs. 200,000 cr. This is money it can remit straight to the government this year.
Doesn’t it do that always?
Well, no. The RBI is not very happy to be paying the government anything, to be honest. They keep building random “buffers” to avoid having to pay the government. See what all they have:
Contingency fund: 200,000 cr.
Why? We have no idea. The RBI never participates in any contingency whatsoever; all bank rescues are funded by the government or the PSUs or such. The RBI doesn’t even like to buy anything that isn’t government bonds, so they never take any balance sheet risk. There is no need for a contingency reserve at the RBI. And that too, 200,000 cr. – that’s more than 30% of India’s fiscal deficit! Come on.
You might keep a little bit here, but to hoard such a large number here is unnecessary.
Currency revaluation account: Now, over 800,000 cr.
This is basically reflecting the fact that RBI bought dollars at Rs. 55 or gold at Rs. 1600 per gram and now the dollar is at 75, and gold is at 3800.
This is huge. They keep adding to this fund every year, needlessly – a change in accounting procedure may help remove it.
Asset Development Fund: Rs. 23,000 cr.
Again, why? All major things owned by the RBI are now, by decree, transferred to the government. Examples: SBI, NABARD, NHB. Why should the RBI keep a reserve for this, especially when they have collectively spend less than 5000 cr. in the last five years from such a fund? What’s the point?
Other stuff: Rs. 200,000 cr.
This contains items like unrealized gains on Government bonds and foreign bonds
Again, this should be a profit but is not recorded as one just so that they can avoid having to pay the government. (One simple way to record it is to sell all the bonds and buy them back instantly, converting all the unrealized gains to realised profit)
In total, the RBI has a Rs. 13.5 lakh crores of extra profit (retained earnings of sorts) on its balance sheet. Every year, it generates a large profit and just keeps a good portion in each of these sub clauses, and avoids paying the government. In a partial correction, last year, they discovered that the excess on the balance sheet was too large, and paid out Rs. 1.76 lakh crores as dividend, but it still leaves a huge amount of room for more.
You said Rs. 400,000 cr….
Yes, I’m coming to that. The RBI’s balance sheet is Rs. 47 lakh crores. The “equity” stuff on the balance sheet, which includes the “extra” stuff we talked about – is more than 13 lakh crores. That’s like 27% of their balance sheet. According to the recent Bimal Jalan committee report, the RBI should have a total buffer of about 21% – around 9.8 lakh crores. Given that they have more than 13.5 lakh crores – roughly 400,000 cr. can be given back to the government as dividend.
But what will they sell to give dividends?
Oh they don’t have to sell anything. The RBI has an account for the government. (It’s the govt’s banker). So you transfer from one account (the retained earnings) to another. That’s all. Well, what happens when the government spends the money? It goes to a bank account with some bank. So that banks account with the RBI will swell up and the government’s will reduce. The RBI balance sheet doesn’t change – only the constituents do.
Wait. Why all this now?
Let’s get serious. This is a massive economic blow for the country. We will easily lose over 4% of GDP just to the lack of activity for a month. This has to be made up by massive government spending. That spending has to be financed. Already, the highest expenditure of the govt is interest payments. (Over 5 lakh crores in interest. The next highest entry, defence spending, is 40% lower!) The government may still need to borrow but why should it borrow when the RBI, which is owned by the government, has all the bloat sitting inside it? That’s like saying I have a lot of fixed deposits but let me go borrow money instead to pay for my urgent medical bills, even though I’m reeling under interest payments. The country needs help. We need to relax the ridiculously huge buffers maintained by the RBI in order for the government to spend. The RBI could pay a lot more – but this year, a 400,000 cr. payment looks very achievable without stepping on some toes. I’m not even asking for the government to eat into RBI’s already created massive reserves. Just that they take what profit would have been generated in this one year, instead of allowing RBI to bloat what is already much larger retained profits than required. Remember, most central banks have much lower retained equity as a percentage of their balance sheet. RBI is at 23% currently. Brazil is at 1%, Russia at 13%, South Africa at 1% and the closest perhaps is Germany at 13%. India’s RBI has simply way too much in terms of retained earnings and buffers. In the times of a crisis, you have to use buffers. This is a crisis. This is what a buffer was meant for. I know that a vast crowd will cry tears about how this undermines the independence of the RBI or some such random spiel, but this is not a time to listen to them. It’s time for us to place money in the hands of those that will shoulder the burden, and to not let it lie in forever-unused buffers like within the RBI. Note: What about inflation, you might ask. There will be no inflation by this; none of the above will cause balance sheet expansion of the RBI. And btw, the whole world is inflating and doing so heavily. And they’re all going to support their own countries with specific packages. In that context, there is very little likelihood of any inflation – in fact we’ll have to fight deflation in a slowdown.
https://www.capitalmind.in/2020/04/how-the-government-can-get-400000-cr-to-fight-the-covid-slowdown/
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Immediate Aftermath : The more data we collect and analyze, the clearer the picture becomes.

This is the updated first part of the list that has recorded the notable events as the world deals with the COVID-19 pandemic. [2nd Part] ― The LINKS to events and sources are placed throughout the timeline.
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The More Data We Collect and Analyze, the Clearer the Picture Becomes.
Someone threw a stone in a pond a long way away. And we're only just feeling the ripples. — Fukuhara from Giri/Haji, Netflix series
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On Jan 30, Italian PM announced that Italy had blocked all flights to and from China. While Italy has banned people from air-travelling to China, however according to IATA data, there's no measurement implemented for air-travellers from China into Italy till the Mar 07. Especially for Chinese people who have EU passports.
On Jan 31, the US announced the category-I travel restrictions, barring all foreigners who have been in China for the past 14 days, with measures including the refusal of visas and mandatory quarantine.
• "Because the US focused on China and didn't expect the infected people's entry from Europe and the Middle East, the Maginot Line was breached from behind. And so little of credible data at the beginning made the US government to miscalculate its strategic response to the virus." — Dr. Zhang Lun, currently a visiting scholar at Harvard (economics & sociology), during the interview with ICPC on Mar 29.
Also on Jan 31, the WHO changed its tune and declared the coronavirus outbreak a Global Public Health Emergency of international concern (PHEIC).
Decisions on a PHEIC always involve politics .... West African countries discouraged a declaration in 2014 after they were hit by the largest Ebola virus outbreak on record, mainly because of concern about the economic impact.
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On Feb 02, regarding the US category-I travel restrictions, Kamala Harris, the former Democratic presidential candidate, declared on Twitter:
Since 2017, Trump’s travel bans have never been rooted in national security—they’re about discriminating against people of color. They are, without a doubt, rooted in anti-immigrant, white supremacist ideologies. This travel ban is no different.
On Feb 03, criticizing Trump for his travel restrictions continues. Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying (华春莹), a Peking University professors James Liang (梁建章), New York Times, the Nation, OBSERVER, the Boston Globe, Yahoo, and Daily Kos were saying,
it's a "panicky" decision and "racist" or it's "cruel and callous," he's stoking fear for political gains, and the president is "inappropriately overreacting." And professors Liang even said the US ban "will hurt goodwill and cooperation [with China] in the future." [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
Also on Feb 03, Mr. Tedros of the WHO said there's no need for travel ban measure that "unnecessarily interfere with international travel and trade" trying to halt the spread of the virus.
China's delegate took the floor ... and denounced measures by "some countries" that have denied entry to people holding passports issued in Hubei province - at the centre of the outbreak - and to deny visas and cancel flights.
Also on Feb 03, China is expected to gradually implement a larger stimulus packages (in total) than a USD $572 billion from 2008. — We'd never find out but my guess is that the fund will probably go to Shanghai clique.
On Feb 04, The FDA has given emergency authorization to a new test kit by the CDC that promises to help public health labs meet a potential surge in cases.
The speed ... pushing through a new diagnostic test shows just how seriously they’re taking the potentially pandemic threat of 2019-nCoV. It’s also a sign that the world is starting to learn how to deal with an onslaught of new pathogens.
Also on Feb 04, the Wuhan Institute of Virology and China's Academy of Military Medical Sciences (AMMS, Chief Chen Wei belongs to) have jointly applied to patent the use of Remdesivir. Scientists from both institutes said in a paper published in Nature’s Cell Research that they found both Remdesivir and Chloroquine to be an effective way to inhibit the coronavirus.
On Feb 06, Jamestown Foundation, a Washington-based research & analysis unit, noted that with State Council of PRC praising his performance of containing the pandemic situation, the council expanded Li Keqiang's political control over Politburo Standing Committee of CCP. (Li Keqiang = Communist Youth League = Shanghai clique)
Also, on Feb 06, as the US evacuation planes leave China, the wave of the US evacuees have arrived who are met by the CDC personnel at the quarantine sites for screening, and those who were suspected of infection will be placed under quarantine for 14 days.
Also, on Feb 06, a CDC-developed lab test kit to detect the new coronavirus began shipping to qualified US laboratories and international ones. — However, on Feb 12, the CDC said some of the testing kits have flaws and do not work properly. The CDC finally ended up shipping the working test kits for mass testings on Feb 27. This was three weeks later than originally planned.
On Feb 07, China National Petroleum has recently declared Force Majeure on gas imports. They are trying to create a breathing room for their foreign exchange reserves shortage. China's foreign exchange reserves fell to mere USD $3.1 trillion in Oct. 2019.
On the same day, Bloomberg reported that PetroChina has directed employees in 20 countries to buy N95 face masks and send them home in China. The goal is to get 2 million masks shipped back. You can also find YouTube videos that show Overseas Chinese are scouring the masks at the Home Depot to ship them to China (the video in Korean). Also Chris Smith is pissed.
On Feb 09, Trump renews his national emergency on its southern border, and Elizabeth Goitein from the Brennan Center for Justice, published an opinion article on New York Times titled "Trump Has Abused This Power. And He Will Again if He’s Not Stopped."
On Feb 10, Dr. Tedros said that an advance three-person team of the WHO arrived in Beijing for a joint mission to discuss with Chinese officials the agenda and questions. Then, the joint mission of about 10 international experts will soon follow, he said. — Those WHO experts ended up visiting Chinese epicentre for the first time on Feb 24.
On Feb 12, the US targets Russian oil company for helping Venezuela skirt sanctions. The US admin seemingly tried to secure leverage against Russia after noticing something suspicious was up.
On the same day, Trump told Reuters "I hope this outbreak or this event (for the US) may be over in something like April." — Dr. Zhong Nanshan (钟南山), China's top tier SARS-hero doctor, also said "the peak of the virus (for China) should come in mid to late February, followed by a plateau or decrease," adding that his forecast was based on on mathematical modelling and data from recent events and government action.
On Feb 13, Tom Frieden who is a former US CDC chief and currently the head of public health nonprofit Resolve to Save Lives, said:
As countries are trying to develop their own control strategies, they are looking for evidence of whether the situation in China is getting worse or better. [But] We still don't have very basic information. [since the WHO just entered China] We hope that information will be coming out.
On the same day, the CDC reports that the 15th case in the US was confirmed. The patient was a part of group who were under a federal quarantine order at the JBSA-Lackland base because of a recent trip to Hubei Province, China.
By Feb 13, China hasn't accepted the US CDC's offer to send top experts, and they haven't released the "disaggregated" data (specific figures broken out from the overall numbers) even though repeatedly been asked.
On Feb 14, CCP's United Front posted an article on its official website, saying (Eng. text by Google Translation):
Fast! There is no time difference to raise urgently needed materials! Some Overseas Chinese have used their professions in the field of medicine in order to purchase relevant materials Hubei province in short of supply (to send them to China). .... Some Overseas Chinese took advantage of the connection resources, opened green transportation channels through our embassies and consulates abroad, and their related enterprises, and quickly sent large quantities of medical supplies (to China), making this love relay link and cooperation seamless.
On Feb 18, Reuters reports that 3M is on the list of firms eligible for China loans to ease coronavirus crisis.
There is no indication from the list that loans offered will necessarily be sought, or that such firms are in any financial need. The Bank of Shanghai told Reuters it will lend 5.5 billion yuan ($786 million) to 57 firms on its list.
On Feb 21, Xi Jinping writes a thank-you letter to Bill Gates for his foundation’s support to China regarding COVID-19 outbreak.
On Feb 24, China was rumoured on Twitter to delay the phase one trade deal implementation indefinitely which includes the increase of China's purchasing American products & services by at least $200 billion over the next two years.
Also on Feb 24, S&P 500 Index started to drop. Opened with 3225.9 and closed 3128.2. By the Mar 23, it dropped to 2208.9.
Also on Feb 24, China's National Health Commission says the WHO experts have visited Wuhan city for the first time, the locked-down central Chinese city at the epicentre, inspecting two hospitals and a makeshift one at a sports centre.
On Feb 26, IF the picture that has been circulated on Twitter were real, then chief Chen Wei and her team have developed the first batch of COVID-19 vaccine within time frame of a month.
On the same day, the CDC's latest figures displays 59 people in the US who have tested positive for COVID-19.
Also on Feb 26, the Washington Post published an article that says:
.... the WHO said it has repeatedly asked Chinese officials for "disaggregated" data — meaning specific figures broken out from the overall numbers — that could shed light on hospital transmission and help assess the level of risk front-line workers face. "We received disaggregated information at intervals, though not details about health care workers," said Tarik Jasarevic of the WHO. — The comment, in an email on Feb 22 to the Post, was one of the first instances that the WHO had directly addressed shortcomings in China's reporting or handling of the coronavirus crisis.
On Feb 27, after missteps, the CDC says its test kit is ready and the US started to expand testing.
On Feb 28, China transferred more than 80,000 Uighurs to factories used by global brands such as Apple, Nike, & Volkswagen & among others.
Also on Feb 28, the WHO published the official report of the WHO-China joint mission on coronavirus disease 2019. (PDF)
On Feb 29, quoting Caixin media's investigation published on the same day, Lianhe Zaobao, the largest Singapore-based Chinese-language newspaper, published an article reporting the following:
Dr. Li Wenliang said in the interview with Caixin media; [in Dec 2019] another doctor (later turned out to be Dr. Ai Fen) examined and tried to treat a patient who exhibited SARS-like symptoms which akin to influenza resistant to conventional treatment methods. And "the family members who took care of her (the patient) that night also had a fever, and her other daughter also had a fever. This is obviously from person to person" Dr. Li said in the interview."
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On Mar 01, China's State Council super tighten up their already draconian internet law.
On the same day, Princelings published an propaganda called "A Battle Against Epidemic: China Combating COVID-19 in 2020" which compiles numerous state media accounts on the heroic leadership of Xi Jinping, the vital role of the Communist Party, and the superiority of the Chinese system in fighting the virus.
Starting on Mar 03, the US Fed has taken two significant measures to provide monetary stimulus. It's going to be no use as if a group of people with serious means are manipulating the markets to make sure MM will have liquidity concerns when they need it most.
On Mar 04, Xinhua News, China's official state-run press agency posted an article "Be bold: the world should thank China" which states that
If China retaliates against the US at this time, it will also announce strategic control over medical products, and ban exports of said products to the US. ... If China declares today that its drugs are for domestic use only, the US will fall into the hell of new coronavirus epidemic.
On Mar 05, Shanghai Index has recovered the coronavirus loss almost completely.
On Mar 07, Saudi's Ahmed bin Abdulaziz and Muhammad bin Nayef were arrested on the claims of plotting to overthrow King Salman. — Ahmed bin Abdulaziz is known to have very tight investment-interest relationship with Bill Gates, Bill Browder, Blackstone, & BlackRock: One common factor that connects these people is China.
On Mar 08, the Russia–Saudi oil price war has begun. The ostensible reason was simple: China, the biggest importer of oil from Saudi and Russia, was turning back tankers while claiming that the outbreak forced its economy to a standstill.
On Mar 10, the Washington Post published the article saying that the trade group for manufacturers of personal protective equipment urged in 2009 "immediate action" to restock the national stockpile including N95 masks, but it hasn't been replenished since.
On Mar 11, the gentleman at the WHO declares the coronavirus outbreak a "Global Pandemic." He called on governments to change the course of the outbreak by taking "urgent and aggressive action." This was a full twelve days after the organization published the official report regarding the situation in China.
On Mar 13, the US admin declared a National Emergency and announced the plan to release $50 billion in federal resources amid COVID-19.
Also on Mar 13, China's Ministry of Commerce states that China is now the best region for global investment hedging.
On Mar 15, Business Insider reports that Trump tried to poach German scientists working on a coronavirus vaccine and offered cash so it would be exclusive to the US. The problem is the official CureVac (the German company) twitter account, on Mar 16, 2020, tweeted the following:
To make it clear again on coronavirus: CureVac has not received from the US government or related entities an offer before, during and since the Task Force meeting in the White House on March 2. CureVac rejects all allegations from press.
On Mar 16, the fan club of European globalists has published a piece titled, "China and Coronavirus: From Home-Made Disaster to Global Mega-Opportunity." The piece says:
The Chinese method is the only method that has proved successful [in fighting the virus], is a message spread online in China by influencers, including many essentially promoting propaganda. ... it is certainly a message that seems to be resonating with opinion leaders around the world.
On the same day, unlike China that had one epicentre, Wuhan city, the US now overtakes China with most cases reporting multiple epicentres simultaneously.
Also on Mar 16, the US stocks ended sharply lower with the Dow posting its worst point drop in history. But some showed a faint hint of uncertain hope.
On Mar 17, according to an article on Chinese version of Quora, Zhihu, chief Chen Wei and her team with CanSino Biologics officially initiated a Phase-1 clinical trial for COVID-19 vaccine at the Wuhan lab, Hubei China, which Bloomberg News confirmed. — Click HERE, then set its time period as 1 year, and see when the graph has started to move up.
Also on Mar 17, China's state media, China Global TV Network (CGTN), has produced YouTube videos for Middle Eastern audiences to spread the opinion that the US has engineered COVID-19 events.
Also on Mar 17, Al Jazeera reported that the US President has been criticized for repeatedly referring to the coronavirus as the "Chinese Virus" as critics saying Trump is "fueling bigotry."
• China's Xinhua News tweeted "Racism is not the right tool to cover your own incompetence."
• Tucker Carlson asked: "Why would America's media take China's side amid coronavirus pandemic?"
• Also, Mr. Bill Gates: "We should not call this the Chinese virus."
On Mar 19, for the first time, China reports zero local infections.
Also on Mar 19, Al Jazeera published an analysis report, titled "Coronavirus erodes Trump's re-election prospects."
On Mar 22, Bloomberg reports that China's mobile carriers lost 21 million users during this pandemic event. It's said to be the first net decline since starting to report monthly data in 2000.
On Mar 26, EURACTV reports that China cashes in off coronavirus, selling Spain $466 million in supplies. However, Spain returns 9,000 "quick result" test kits to China, because they were deemed substandard. — Especially the sensibility of the test was around 30 percent, when it should be higher than 80 percent.
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On Apr 03, Germany and other governments are bolstering corporate defenses to address worries that coronavirus-weakened companies could be easy prey for bargain hunting by China's state owned businesses.
On Apr 05, New York Times says "Trump Again Promotes Use of Unproven Anti-Malaria Drug (hydroxychloroquine)."
On Apr 06, a Democratic State Rep. Karen Whitsett from Detroit credits hydroxychloroquine and President Trump for "saving her in her battle with the coronavirus."
On Apr 07, the US CDC removed the following part from its website.
Although optimal dosing and duration of hydroxychloroquine for treatment of COVID-19 are unknown, some U.S. clinicians have reported anecdotally different hydroxychloroquine dosing such as: 400mg BID on day one, then daily for 5 days; 400 mg BID on day one, then 200mg BID for 4 days; 600 mg BID on day one, then 400mg daily on days 2-5.
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☞ If there were ever a time for people not to be partisan and tribal, the time has come: We need to be ever vigilant and attentive to all kinds of disinformation & misinformation to see it better as well as to be sharp in our lives. — We really do need to come together.
☞ At first, I was going to draw up a conspiracy theory-oriented list focused on Team-Z, especially Mr. Gates. However, although it's nothing new tbh, recently many chats and discussions seem overflowing with disinformation & misinformation which is, in my opinion, particularly painful at a time like this. Hence, this post became a vanilla list that's just recorded the notable events. — We all are subject to misinformation, miscalculation, and misjudgment. But the clearer the picture becomes the better we can identify Funkspiel.
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Immediate Aftermath pt.2.a
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Feasible Timeline of the Operation
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☞ Go Back to the Short Story.
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submitted by vanillabluesea to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Economic growth under Modi government

DISCLAIMER- THIS IS NOT A POST BY ME. I AM MERELY SHARING THE POST BY COPY PASTING IT HERE.

SOURCE OF THIS ENTIRE ARTICLE Quora Article by SAKET KUMAR

Original Article has all pictures and graphs for you to refer to. This post only has the text. The text in Bold are hyperlinks in the original article which not here.

I am trained as a Scientist so first I have to present credible relevant data before I can convince anyone. First I will answer the question with 1 picture and explain 3 parameters.
The below image is not fake. They are NASA satellite images of India taken during night time.

As you can see one on the left is from 2012 and on the right is from 2016. The research paper written by Luis R. Martinez from University of Chicago shows that increased use of electricity at night is parallel to country’s economic growth. Further he states in that paper authoritarian countries like China and Russia are fudging their GDP anywhere from 15 to 30% every year. You can read the research paper here How Much Should We Trust the Dictator's GDP Growth Estimates? or you can read Washington Post article .
Now the 3 Parameters
Modi became PM on May 26th 2014. In October 2014 IMF came out with a report which said** India set to become $2 trillion economy in 2014: IMF** . India’s GDP was ~$1.9 Trillion when Modi became PM. Fast forward now the same IMF says India’s GDP is $3.2 Trillion . Here is the snap shot directly from IMF website.

**Note: IMF always slightly understates GDP to account for any observational bias and inaccuracies. This is GDP estimate from a totally neutral source so you can’t say this is BJP propaganda or call it as fake.
→Conclusion from GDP data: Modi government added $1.2 Trillion to GDP in 5 years. India reached $1 Trillion GDP in 2007 India had joined trillion-dollar club in 2007 so even after 7 years of being in power UPA couldn’t even make India $2 Trillion economy. When Atalji left office in 2004 India had $700 billion GDP according to World bank report . So UPA in 10 years added $1.2 Trillion in GDP but Modiji did the same in 5 years.
Inflation: Inflation in Economic terms is general increase in prices and fall in purchasing power parity. As you know when there is increase in inflation prices rise on many goods and services and your purchasing power decreases. Just because prices increased on goods and services doesn’t mean your boss is going to increase your salary unless you are a Central government employee where you get Dearness allowance - Wikipedia to compensate for high inflation. Let’s look at inflation from 1998 :

Inflation directly affects the common man. When Atalji came to power in 1998 inflation was through the roof at 13.5%. He cracked down on inflation and brought it down to ~4% and maintained the same through out his Premiership. This is a PM who cared for the common man. Now look at the graph after 2004. UPA always maintained high inflation which on average was above 8%+ which emptied people’s pockets faster than they could spend. Just see how the graph dips when Modi became PM in 2014. Keeping inflation down is one of the paramount tasks of any BJP Prime Minister.
Important Note: GDP growth in some ways is tied to inflation. If you have a GDP growth rate of 10% with 10% inflation then it’s no use. It’s better to have GDP growth of 5% with low inflation rate of below 2%. Lower the inflation the better for the economy as long as it is not in negative. UPA always boasts about high GDP but never ever mention inflation rate during their term because they know they will be caught with pants down. Some people can see through the BS of UPA’s high GDP growth. GDP surged under UPA because it purchased growth at a high price .
→Conclusion from Inflation data: Inflation was always low under Atalji and Modiji. No Economist can deny that. No amount of propaganda from Congress can deny this brutal truth. In between all the lies even the scammer, fraud and corrupt Chiddu accepts it** High inflation was a big red in the UPA-2 report card: P Chidambaram**
Forex Reserves: When Atalji became PM in 1998 India’s forex reserves was ~$30 billion . When he left office in 2004 it had jumped to $114 billion . When Modi became PM on May 26th 2014 the forex reserves was $303 billion . Now as of March 13th 2020 forex reserves is** Forex reserves surge by $5.69 billion to reach record $487.23 bn** .
***Note: It is exactly because of our lower forex reserves we had to approach IMF in 1991. In return for IMF bail out India had to open up it’s markets for outside investment. If India doesn’t have enough forex then Economy comes to a standstill as India will lack the capability to pay for external goods and services which it imports. We import 90% of our Oil from abroad. If there is no oil then there is no economy.
→Conclusion from Forex data: Atalji as PM increased forex from $30 billion to $114 billion in 6 years during Pokran sanctions and unfavorable economic climate. Atalji’s government added $114B - $30B = $84 billion into forex. At the end of UPA tenure forex was $303 billion. So UPA in 10 years added $303B - $114B = $189 billion. Now how much did Modi Sarkar added in 5 years? $487B - $303B = $184 billion. As you can see just like GDP what UPA did in 10 years Modiji government has done the same for forex in 5 years. And we still have 4 more years to go. I hope India reaches $1 Trillion in forex which can help India project power. None of the countries who are barking on CAA will bark again when you have a war chest of Trillion dollars.
Final Conclusion: I have only added 3 parameters to my answer since the question is asking everything to be in 1 picture which is not possible. But anyone can tell you simple truth if Modiji hasn’t done anything since he became PM then all the above parameters would be worse off than how UPA left them in 2014. Those 3 are very very important parameters for India. If India is performing worse like some morons who are predicting apocalypse for Indian economy are saying then the data is not backing them up.
submitted by DeadBodiesinMyArse to IndiaSpeaks [link] [comments]

Some news you may have missed out on part 104.

-Pakistan to be out of FATF's grey list by September, promises Central Bank
Islamabad will strictly implement the requirements of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) in order to get out of the money laundering grey list released by the Paris-based body, a senior official of Pakistan's Central Bank said on Wednesday. FATF had previously placed Pakistan on its watch list of countries that need to do more in relation to anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism.
"The FATF challenge has be to be addressed. Pakistan has mandated upon itself to enforce the FATF plan in letter and spirit. Whatever the requirements about the FATF plan are, they will be imposed and Pakistan will be out of grey list by September 2019. FATF is a risk but we are addressing it in the right letter and spirt," said Syed Irfan Ali, executive director for Banking Policy and Regulation Group at the State Bank of Pakistan.
-NAB finds 'proof of massive money laundering' against Sharif family
The Sharif family’s troubles seem set to worsen as reports suggest the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) has found evidence of massive money laundering through which Shehbaz Sharif and his family members accumulated assets in the United Kingdom.
According to sources privy to NAB’s investigation, the illegally accumulated assets are worth Rs85 billion to Rs100 billion and were bought during Shehbaz’s tenure as Punjab chief minister.
They said the evidence found was irrefutable and showed striking similarities with the money laundering and fake accounts case against former president Asif Ali Zardari and other Pakistan Peoples Party leaders.
-US debunks Indian claims of shooting down PAF F-16
Indian claims of shooting down a Pakistan Air Force (PAF) F-16 on February 27 were debunked by US officials as all aircraft are accounted for. Pakistan invited US officials to physically count the F-16 planes after the incident. Some of the aircraft were not immediately available for inspection due to the conflict, so it took US personnel several weeks to account for all of the jets, one of the officials said.
The report stated that two US defence officials with direct knowledge of the matter said US personnel had done a count of Pakistan’s F-16s and found none missing.
-Finance minister rules out further rupee devaluation
Finance Minister Asad Umar on Friday ruled out the need for further devaluation of the Pakistani rupee as the currency stands at equilibrium. “The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has made no demand for rupee devaluation,” Umar clarified categorically while addressing at Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) through online video conference. “Today, the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) has clarified the rupee is standing at equilibrium,” he said. Dismissing reports of further devaluation, he added: “Stop circulating rumors that Asam Umar has said rupee would depreciate to 160 or 180.”
-o
For the Centre for Social Justice (CSJ) in Lahore, Christian children have the right to study the Bible, Hindu children have the right to study the Bhagavat Gita and Buddhist children have the right to study the Vedas. Together with the People’s Commission for Minorities Rights (PCMR), the CSJ held a conference on 29 March in which they adopted a resolution entitled ‘Right to education without discrimination’ demanding the right of minorities to teach their own religion in schools, as guaranteed by Article 22 of the Pakistani Constitution. Currently, only Islam is taught in schools.
-China’s BeiDou Navigation System Will be Able to Replace GPS in Pakistan Soon
Pakistani military reliance on the US-owned Global Positioning System (GPS) will be reduced after the use of China’s Beidou satellite navigation system which is projected to achieve global coverage by 2020. This was the crux of background discussions between former military officials and telecom experts.
Beidou is the world’s fourth space-based navigation system, following GPS by the United States, GLONASS by Russia and Galileo by the European Union. According to experts, the satellite-based system plays a vital role in the modern world, especially during wartime.
-PM Imran Khan announces unprecedented 10 years development package for tribal districts
Prime Minister Imran Khan has announced a ten-year special development package for tribal districts. Addressing a big public meeting at Jamrud, Khyber district this evening, he said one hundred billion rupees will be spent on the development of tribal areas each year. He said health, education and sports facilities in tribal areas will be enhanced.
-SBP’s Forex Reserves Cross the $10 Billion Mark
The foreign exchange reserves of State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) have crossed the $10 billion mark by March-end. During the week that ended on 29 March 2019, SBP received inflows of RMB 15 billion (equivalent to US$2.2 billion) as proceeds of the loan obtained by the government of Pakistan from China. After taking into account outflows relating to external debt and other official payments, SBP reserves increased by $1.931 billion during the week.
-Benami Properties: FBR takes an unprecedented step
Federal Board of Revenue has established three Benami Zones at Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad for enforcement of Benami Transaction (Prohibition) Act, 2017. In a press release issued today (Thursday), it was said after examination of available information FBR Benami Zones Karachi and Lahore have issued show cause notices in six cases of Companies holding shares and immovable properties as Benamidar.
-Ministry of Finance proposed to amend Foreign Exchange Regulations Act in Pakistan
Ministry of Finance has proposed to amend the Foreign Exchange Regulations Act 1947 to prevent illegal foreign exchange transactions. Under the proposal, the previous act will be updated with an amendment act to empower the State Bank of Pakistan to regulate foreign exchange regime in the country more effectively.
It said proposed amendment has been approved by the Federal Cabinet and transmitted to Parliament for enactment. The measure is a part of government's efforts to enhance the transparency of financial transactions.
-KP government launches 'Pink Bus Service' exclusively for women
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government launched on Thursday ‘Pink Bus Service’ exclusively for women in Mardan. A spokesman of the project told our Peshawar correspondent that a total of seven Pink Buses will ply in Mardan. There are fifteen bus stops each facilitated with the solar panels.
-Pakistan makes a new offer to Iran, FTA in works
Pakistan has invited Iran for talks on a free trade agreement (FTA). Pakistan has proposed that talks could be held on April 23-24 in Pakistan. The report added that lack of direct banking channel between the two countries is the main hurdle in finalizing the free trade agreement.
-Govt Mulling to Withdraw 10% FED on 1,700cc Vehicles: Abdul Razaq
The government is considering to withdraw its decision of imposing 10% federal excise duty (FED) on cars with engine capacities exceeding 1,700cc. The Senate’s Standing Committee on Industries and Production, on Wednesday, was informed that the 10 percent FED imposed on locally manufactured cars and SUVs, having engine capacity exceeding 1,700cc, would be withdrawn soon.
-Govt to Crackdown Against High Medicine Prices & Launch An Online Price Portal
The federal government has ordered a crackdown against pharmaceutical companies that are illegally increasing medicine prices. Minister for National Health Services (NHS), Aamer Mehmood Kiani, ordered an operation against such firms on Wednesday.
“Though the Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan (DRAP) deals with the matter, as a government representative, I consider myself responsible for providing relief to the masses and answerable to them. I am personally looking into the matter and would not tolerate an illegal and unauthorized increase in the prices of medicines,” the minister said.
-Pakistan’s First Environment Friendly Food Festival to Start on 5th April
To discourage single-use plastics and promote sustainable food consumption, WWF-Pakistan is organizing the country’s first environmental-friendly food festival in Karachi. The festival, ReFest, aims to reduce food waste and raise awareness about eating food in a responsible way as well as adopting sustainable practices in our daily lives such as reduced use of single-use plastics. The theme of the festival is to spread awareness about the cause and enjoy the festivals responsibly, as per WWF, festivals were one of the reasons of over-littering due to massive use of single-use plastic in food festivals. The idea is to promote a sense of responsibility among citizens about how we can enjoy and be responsible at the same time.
-Gilgit is Getting a Dedicated Tourism Police Division
Gilgit-Baltistan Inspector General of Police (IGP) Sanaullah Abbasi said that a special tourism force will be formed in the region to ensure the safety of national and foreign tourists. He also told that the GB government will deploy 700 personnel for the protection of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor route. The special tourism force called, “Tourism Police Division” will be set up on the model of Malaysia and Thailand.
-PM takes part in Hyderabad University’s Groundbreaking Ceremony.
The project is projected to complete within 3 years, with over Rs. 2 billion as the estimated cost. The land for building the university has been marked in Kohsar. A bill will be passed from the National Assembly for the construction of the university. The name of the university has been decided as “Federal Urdu University Hyderabad”.
-Facebook Launches Its Innovation Lab Platform in Pakistan
Facebook and Pakistan’s Ministry of Information Technology along with the National Technology Fund (IGNITE) launched the first Facebook Innovation Lab located in the National Incubation Centre (NIC) at the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS). The launch event, held on Wednesday, April 3, 2019, was attended by several thought leaders from across the world who came together and debated on issues such as women and technology; the impact that VR has on social good and impactful ways to harness technology for social good.
-UN Adopts Pakistan Sponsored Resolution Against Islamophobia
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) unanimously adopted a resolution on Tuesday strongly condemning acts of violence and terrorism against religious minorities.mThe resolution, titled ‘Combating terrorism and other acts of violence based on religion or belief’ was moved by Turkey and co-sponsored by Pakistan.
Through this, the UNGA condemned the atrocious terrorist attack targeting Muslims during Friday prayers in two mosques at Christchurch, New Zealand this month, while offering deepest condolences to the victim families.The UN assembly called for the protection and promotion of freedom of religion and belief while developing a domestic environment of religious tolerance, respect, and peace.
-Government announces changes for new budget
With the new budget coming up, the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government announced on Tuesday its first tax amnesty scheme on hidden domestic and offshore assets – in an attempt to boost the sinking tax revenue.
Besides, the government announced that it would stop the unchecked outflow of dollars through foreign currency accounts, declaring its intention to amend laws to link the outflows for investment with the approval of the authorities. “An asset declaration scheme will be announced before the budget,” Finance Minister Asad Umar told journalists.
-First ever Pakistani international tourism corner opens in Europe
Pakistan has opened its first International Information Tourist Corner in Belgium to offer Europeans Pakistan’s unique culture, stunning scenic view of its northern areas and the traditional lifestyle of mountain people. Launched jointly in collaboration with the Embassy of Pakistan in Brussels and Tribes, a Dutch Company established in Brussels, the tourist corner is the first-ever initiative by the Pakistani mission in Belgium to promote tourism in Pakistan
-Asad Umar hints at withdrawing tax exemptions for elite
Finance Minister Asad Umar on Tuesday hinted at withdrawing tax exemptions being availed by the elite and also announced a drastic reduction in the number of withholding taxes from the next budget including the tax on banking transactions being paid by non-filers of tax returns.
The minister expressed these views at the launching ceremony of a book, ‘Growth and Inequality in Pakistan – Agenda for Reforms’. The book has been written by Dr Hafiz A Pasha whom Umar described as Pakistan’s number one economist. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung – a German institute – has financed the book under the theme of ‘Economy of Tomorrow’. The book discusses almost every important aspect of Pakistan’s economy and carries a detailed chapter on elite capture of the state.
-PM Imran Khan to perform ground breaking of two Naya Pakistan Housing Programme sites
Prime Minister Imran Khan is expected to perform the ground-breaking ceremony of two housing projects in Islamabad and Quetta later this month. Both projects are part of PM Khan’s ambition of Naya Pakistan Housing Program (NPHP) under which he promised to deliver 500,000 low-cost residential units to the underprivileged faction of the society.
-PM Khan announces economic corridor between KP Khyber and Afghanistan
PM Imran Khan has announced formation of economic corridor between KP Khyber and Afghanistan for improving trade and economic activities in the region. PM Khan announced that he has issued directives for the Torkham border with Afghanistan to be kept open 24/7 in order to facilitate business and trade for locals.
-First woman principal appointed at K-P police training centre
A police training centre in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa’s (K-P) Mansehra has appointed a woman principal – a first for the province. Sonia Shamroz, an MBA in human resource management and an 18-grade officer, termed her appointment to the billet as a matter of great pride for her family and herself.
-Pakistan expected to get significant export orders at Istanbul fair
Pakistan Consul General in Istanbul Bilal Khan Pasha has said that the auto industry of Pakistan, especially the manufacturers of auto and tractor parts, tyres and tubes, has the potential to make inroads into the Turkish market.
“Turkish automakers and Pakistani engineering companies are negotiating to form joint ventures; in the next phase small and medium enterprises of the two countries will enter into partnerships,” Pasha said while talking to The Express Tribune on the sidelines of the Automechanica exhibition, which kicked off in Istanbul on Thursday. “This year, Pakistani companies manufacturing auto and tractor parts as well as tyre tubes are expected to get significant export orders at Automechanica, which will help increase non-traditional goods export from Pakistan to Turkey,” the consul general said.
-PM Imran urges lawmakers to share meal with homeless at govt shelters
Prime Minister Imran Khan on Saturday urged lawmakers to visit the homeless at government shelters and “share a meal with the people using them”.
The premier asserted that this practice will sensitise public representatives to issues faced by the bottom tier Pakistani society. “In the coming months I will personally monitor effectiveness of our poverty alleviation jihad,” the prime minister went on to add in a tweet.
submitted by FashBasher1 to pakistan [link] [comments]

Indian Financial Sector

Department of Financial Services (DFS) has informed that RBI is examining the priority sector lending norms for promoting export credit, Commerce and Industry Minister Piyush Goyal said.
-Economic Times
The Finance Ministry today said that it will look into the applicability of 20% tax proposed in the 2019-20 Budget on the current share buybacks by listed companies. Finance Secretary Subhash Chandra Garg, speaking at a CII event, said the proposed tax on listed companies is aimed at discouraging share buybacks and encouraging investments.
-Economic Times
The Indian Government had Rs 66,793 crore outstanding loans with the RBI under ways and means advances in the week ended July 5, according to the RBI weekly statistical supplement released today. The Central Government had Rs 6,596 crore outstanding loans in the week earlier. State governments had Rs 5,566 crore loans from the RBI in the week ended July 5, compared with Rs 1,661 crore in the previous week, the release showed.
-Economic Times
Even as the real estate industry complains of a slowdown in sales, a RBI survey has said that housing has become less affordable over the last 4 years. This indicates that developers are holding on to prices.
-Economic Times
NABARD today said it plans to raise about Rs 55,000 crore from the market in the current fiscal to fund its business growth and also support various agricultural and rural development schemes of the Government.
-Business Line
After the merger of Bank of Baroda with Dena Bank and Vijaya Bank, the amalgamated lender is focusing on integrating the sprawling technology systems of the 3 financial firms to provide a smooth customer experience. The IT heads of the 3 banks, which together have over 9,500 branches, began chalking out an integration strategy the moment the deal was announced. They, however, had some time before the required slew of approvals came in for the three-way merger.
-Economic Times
The Asian Infrastructure and Investment Bank will launch local currency financing products in India and some other countries this year to provide more options to borrowers, its president Jin Liqun has said. The multilateral development bank could start rolling out the product in pilot countries including India, Indonesia, Thailand and Russia from this month itself. It would focus on private sector clients, Jin said.
-Economic Times
SBI has waived charges on NEFT and RTGS transactions through internet and mobile banking from July 1, after the RBI decided to do away with the charges with an aim to move the country towards less-cash economy. The SBI has also decided to do away with the charges on fund transfer through mobile phones using the IMPS (immediate payment service) from August 1.
-Business Line
IndusInd Bank today reported a 38.30% year-on-year jump in consolidated profit at Rs 1,432.50 crore for the June quarter. The bank had reported a net of Rs 1,035.72 crore in the year ago period.
-Economic Times
UCO Bank is making all efforts to ensure that exporters who do business with Iran can approach its designated branches for help. The bank has increased the number of such designated branches (for doing business with Iran) from 22 to 67. It is now contemplating to set up an apex processing centre across its branch network to help exporters. “This could take another 6-7 months,” a top bank official said.
-Business Line
YES Bank as an issuing and paying agent, facilitated the issuance of a Commercial Paper of INR 100 Crores using Blockchain technology for Vedanta LTD, a natural resources conglomerate. This is the first time in Asia that a CP has been digitally issued using Blockchain technology.
-Moneycontrol.com
Axis Bank tied up with. Flipkart to launch a co-branded credit card and is aiming to sell 1 million of the new card in a year. The new co-branded card comes weeks after American lender CITI launched a similar offering by tying up with payments major Paytm.
-Economic Times
India’s industrial output growth slipped to 3.1% in May mainly on account of subdued performance of mining and manufacturing sector, according to Government data released today. The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) had expanded by 3.8% in May 2018. The index grew at 4.3% in April and 0.4% in March this year.
-Business Line
Retail inflation increased marginally to 3.18% in June over the previous month, mainly due to rise in food prices, according to official data. The retail inflation based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI) stood at 3.05% in May and and 4.92% in June 2018.
-Business Line
India's foreign exchange reserves rose to fresh record high of $429.91 billion as the country's gold and foreign currency assets increased in the week ended July 5. The forex reserves had touched record highs in the previous two weeks.
-Moneycontrol.com
The Government may approach the Ministry of Law and Justice for clarification on monitoring of the recently privatised IDBI Bank. The LIC in January 2019 acquired a 51% stake in the Bank, which reclassified it as a private sector financial institution.
-Moneycontrol.com
The NCLAT today said pension and PF that had invested in IL&FS would have top priority in payment from all categories of companies, whether classified as green, amber or red.
-Business Standard
Infosys today reported 5.2% growth in consolidated net profit to Rs 3,802 crore for the quarter ended June 30, 2019. It had posted a net profit of Rs 3,612 crore in the April-June 2018 quarter, Infosys said in a BSE filing.
-Business Line
USD/INR 68.68
SENSEX 38736.23(-86.88)
NIFTY50 11552.50(-30.40)
 -#120719 
submitted by venuangamaly to indianews [link] [comments]

"Satoshi Nakamoto" the mysterious creator of Bitcoin is no other than the CIA

Bitcoin has surged to all time highs, Who created Bitcoin, and why?
The creator of Bitcoin is officially a name, “Satoshi Nakamoto” – very few people believe that it was a single male from Japan. In the early days of Bitcoin development this name is associated with original key-creation and communications on message boards, and then the project was officially handed over to others at which point this Satoshi character never appeared again (Although from time to time someone will come forward saying they are the real Satoshi Nakamoto, and then have their posts deleted).
Bitcoin could very well be the ‘one world currency’ that conspiracy theorists have been talking about for some time. It’s a kill five birds with one stone solution – not only is Bitcoin an ideal one world currency, it allows law enforcement a perfect record of all transactions on the network. It states very clearly on bitcoin.org (the official site) in big letters “Bitcoin is not anonymous” :
Some effort is required to protect your privacy with Bitcoin. All Bitcoin transactions are stored publicly and permanently on the network, which means anyone can see the balance and transactions of any Bitcoin address. However, the identity of the user behind an address remains unknown until information is revealed during a purchase or in other circumstances. This is one reason why Bitcoin addresses should only be used once.
Another advantage of Bitcoin is the problem of Quantitative Easing – the Fed (and thus, nearly all central banks in the world) have painted themselves in a corner, metaphorically speaking. QE ‘solved’ the credit crisis, but QE itself does not have a solution. Currently all currencies are in a race to zero – competing with who can print more money faster. Central Bankers who are in systemic analysis, their economic advisors, know this. They know that the Fiat money system is doomed, all what you can read online is true (just sensationalized) – it’s a debt based system based on nothing. That system was created, originally in the early 1900’s and refined during Breton Woods followed by the Nixon shock (This is all explained well in Splitting Pennies). In the early 1900’s – there was no internet! It is a very archaic system that needs to be replaced, by something modern, electronic, based on encryption. Bitcoin! It’s a currency based on ‘bits’ – but most importantly, Bitcoin is not the ‘one world currency’ per se, but laying the framework for larger cryptocurrency projects. In the case of central banks, who control the global monetary system, that would manifest in ‘Settlement Coin’ :
Two resources available almost exclusively to central banks could soon be opened up to additional users as a result of a new digital currency project designed by a little-known startup and Swiss bank UBS. One of those resources is the real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system used by central banks (it’s typically reserved for high-value transactions that need to be settled instantly), and the other is central bank-issued cash. Using the Utility Settlement Coin (USC) unveiled today, the five-member consortium that has sprung up around the project aims to help central banks open-up access to these tools to more customers. If successful, USC has the potential to create entirely new business models built on instant settling and easy cash transfers. In interview, Robert Sams, founder of London-based Clearmatics, said his firm initially worked with UBS to build the network, and that BNY Mellon, Deutsche Bank, ICAP and Santander are only just the first of many future members.
the NSA/CIA often works for big corporate clients, just as it has become a cliche that the Iraq war was about big oil, the lesser known hand in global politics is the banking sector. In other words, Bitcoin may have very well been ‘suggested’ or ‘sponsored’ by a banker, group of banks, or financial services firm. But the NSA (as we surmise) was the company that got the job done. And probably, if it was in fact ‘suggested’ or ‘sponsored’ by a private bank, they would have been waiting in the wings to develop their own Bitcoin related systems or as in the above “Settlement Coin.” So the NSA made Bitcoin – so what?
The FX markets currently represent the exchange between ‘major’ and ‘minor’ currencies. In the future, why not too they will include ‘cryptocurrencies’ – we’re already seeing the BTC/EUR pair popup on obscure brokers. When BTC/USD and BTC/EUR are available at major FX banks and brokers, we can say – from a global FX perspective, that Bitcoin has ‘arrived.’ Many of us remember the days when the synthetic “Euro” currency was a new artificial creation that was being adopted, although the Euro project is thousands of degrees larger than the Bitcoin project. But unlike the Euro, Bitcoin is being adopted at a near exponential rate by demand (Many merchants resisted the switch to Euros claiming it was eating into their profit margins and they were right!).
And to answer the question as to why Elite E Services is not actively involved in Bitcoin the answer is that previously, you can’t trade Bitcoin. Now we’re starting to see obscure brokers offering BTC/EUR but the liquidity is sparse and spreads are wacky – that will all change. When we can trade BTC/USD just like EUUSD you can bet that EES and a host of other algorithmic FX traders will be all over it! It will be an interesting trade for sure, especially with all the volatility, the cross ‘pairs’ – and new cryptocurrencies. For the record, for brokers- there’s not much difference adding a new symbol (currency pair) in MT4 they just need liquidity, which has been difficult to find.
So there’s really nothing revolutionary about Bitcoin, it’s just a logical use of technology in finance considering a plethora of problems faced by any central bank who creates currency. And there are some interesting caveats to Bitcoin as compared to major currencies; Bitcoin is a closed system (there are finite Bitcoin) – this alone could make such currencies ‘anti-inflationary’ and at the least, hold their value (the value of the USD continues to deteriorate slowly over time as new M3 introduced into the system.) But we need to pay
Here’s some interesting theories about who or whom is Satoshi:
A corporate conglomerate
Some researchers proposed that the name ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’ was derived from a combination of tech companies consisting of Samsung, Toshiba, Nakayama, and Motorola. The notion that the name was a pseudonym is clearly true and it is doubtful they reside in Japan given the numerous forum posts with a distinctly English dialect.
Craig Steven Wright
This Australian entrepreneur claims to be the Bitcoin creator and provided proof. But soon after, his offices were raided by the tax authorities on ‘an unrelated matter’
Soon after these stories were published, authorities in Australia raided the home of Mr Wright. The Australian Taxation Office said the raid was linked to a long-running investigation into tax payments rather than Bitcoin. Questioned about this raid, Mr Wright said he was cooperating fully with the ATO. “We have lawyers negotiating with them over how much I have to pay,” he said.
Other potential creators
Nick Szabo, and many others, have been suggested as potential Satoshi – but all have denied it:
The New Yorker published a piece pointing at two possible Satoshis, one of whom seemed particularly plausible: a cryptography graduate student from Trinity College, Dublin, who had gone on to work in currency-trading software for a bank and published a paper on peer-to-peer technology. The other was a Research Fellow at the Oxford Internet Institute, Vili Lehdonvirta. Both made denials. Fast Company highlighted an encryption patent application filed by three researchers – Charles Bry, Neal King and Vladimir Oks­man – and a circumstantial link involving textual analysis of it and the Satoshi paper which found the phrase “…computationally impractical to reverse” in both. Again, it was flatly denied.
THE WINNER: It was the NSA
The NSA has the capability, the motive, and the operational capacity – they have teams of cryptographers, the biggest fastest supercomputers in the world, and they see the need. Whether instructed by their friends at the Fed, in cooperation with their owners (i.e. Illuminati banking families), or as part of a DARPA project – is not clear and will never be known (unless a whistleblower comes forward). In fact, the NSA employs some of the best mathematicians and cryptographers in the world. Few know about their work because it’s a secret, and this isn’t the kind of job you leave to start your own cryptography company.
But the real smoking Gun, aside from the huge amount of circumstantial evidence and lack of a credible alternative, is the 1996 paper authored by NSA “HOW TO MAKE A MINT: THE CRYPTOGRAPHY OF ANONYMOUS ELECTRONIC CASH”
The NSA was one of the first organizations to describe a Bitcoin-like system. About twelve years before Satoshi Nakamotopublished his legendary white paper to the Metzdowd.com cryptography mailing list, a group of NSA information security researchers published a paper entitled How to Make a Mint: the Cryptography of Anonymous Electronic Cash in two prominent places, the first being an MIT mailing list and the second being much more prominent, The American Law Review
The paper outlines a system very much like Bitcoin in which secure financial transactions are possible through the use of a decentralized network the researchers refer informally to as a Bank. They list four things as indispensable in their proposed network: privacy, user identification (protection against impersonation), message integrity (protection against tampering/substitution of transaction information – that is, protection against double-spending), and nonrepudiation (protection against later denial of a transaction – a blockchain!).
It is evident that SHA-256, the algorithm Satoshi used to secure Bitcoin, was not available because it came about in 2001. However, SHA-1 would have been available to them, having been published in 1993.
Why would the NSA want to do this? One simple reason: Control.
As we explain in Splitting Pennies – Understanding Forex – the primary means the US dominates the world is through economic policy, although backed by bombs. And the critical support of the US Dollar is primarily, the military. The connection between the military and the US Dollar system is intertwined inextricably. There are thousands of great examples only one of them being how Iraq switched to the Euro right before the Army’s invasion.
In October 2000 Iraq insisted on dumping the US dollar – ‘the currency of the enemy’ – for the more multilateral euro. The changeover was announced on almost exactly the same day that the euro reached its lowest ebb, buying just $0.82, and the G7 Finance Ministers were forced to bail out the currency. On Friday the euro had reached $1.08, up 30 per cent from that time.
Almost all of Iraq’s oil exports under the United Nations oil-for-food programme have been paid in euros since 2001. Around 26 billion euros (£17.4bn) has been paid for 3.3 billion barrels of oil into an escrow account in New York. The Iraqi account, held at BNP Paribas, has also been earning a higher rate of interest in euros than it would have in dollars.
The point here is there are a lot of different types of control. The NSA monitors and collects literally all electronic communications; internet, phone calls, everything. They listen in even to encrypted voice calls with high powered microphones, devices like cellphones equipped with recording devices (See original “Clipper” chip). It’s very difficult to communicate on planet Earth in private, without the NSA listening. So it is only logical that they would also want complete control of the financial system, including records of all electronic transactions, which Bitcoin provides.
Could there be an ‘additional’ security layer baked into the Blockchain that is undetectable, that allows the NSA to see more information about transactions, such as network location data? It wouldn’t be so far fetched, considering their past work, such as Xerox copy machines that kept a record of all copies made (this is going back to the 70’s, now it’s common). Of course security experts will point to the fact that this layer remains invisible, but if this does exist – of course it would be hidden.
More to the point about the success of Bitcoin – its design is very solid, robust, manageable – this is not the work of a student. Of course logically, the NSA employs individuals, and ultimately it is the work of mathematicians, programmers, and cryptographers – but if we deduce the most likely group capable, willing, and motivated to embark on such a project, the NSA is the most likely suspect. Universities, on the other hand, didn’t product white papers like this from 1996.
Another question is that if it was the NSA, why didn’t they go through more trouble concealing their identity? I mean, the internet is rife with theories that it was in fact the NSA/CIA and “Satoshi Nakamoto” means in Japanese “Central Intelligence” – well there are a few answers for this, but to be congruent with our argument, it fits their profile.
Where could this ‘hidden layer’ be? Many think it could be in the public SHA-256, developed by NSA (which ironically, was the encryption algorithm of choice for Bitcoin – they could have chosen hundreds of others, which arguably are more secure):
Claims that the NSA created Bitcoin have actually been flung around for years. People have questioned why it uses the SHA-256 hash function, which was designed by the NSA and published by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST). The fact that the NSA is tied to SHA-256 leads some to assume it’s created a backdoor to the hash function that no one has ever identified, which allows it to spy on Bitcoin users.
“If you assume that the NSA did something to SHA-256, which no outside researcher has detected, what you get is the ability, with credible and detectable action, they would be able to forge transactions. The really scary thing is somebody finds a way to find collisions in SHA-256 really fast without brute-forcing it or using lots of hardware and then they take control of the network,” cryptography researcher Matthew D. Green of Johns Hopkins University said in a previous interview.
Then there’s the question of “Satoshi Nakamoto” – if it was in fact the NSA, why not just claim ownership of it? Why all the cloak and dagger? And most importantly, if Satoshi Nakamoto is a real person, and not a group that wants to remain secret – WHY NOT come forward and claim your nearly $3 Billion worth of Bitcoin (based on current prices).
Did the NSA create Satoshi Nakamoto?
The CIA Project, a group dedicated to unearthing all of the government’s secret projects and making them public, hasreleased a video claiming Bitcoin is actually the brainchild of the US National Security Agency.
The video entitled CIA Project Bitcoin: Is Bitcoin a CIA or NSA project? claims that there is a lot of compelling evidences that proves that the NSA is behind Bitcoin. One of the main pieces of evidence has to do with the name of the mysterious man, woman or group behind the creation of Bitcoin, “Satoshi Nakamoto”.
According to the CIA Project, Satoshi Nakamoto means “Central Intelligence” in Japanese. Doing a quick web search, you’ll find out that Satoshi is usually a name given for baby boys which means “clear thinking, quick witted, wise,” while Nakamoto is a Japanese surname which means ‘central origin’ or ‘(one who lives) in the middle’ as people with this surname are found mostly in the Ryukyu islands which is strongly associated with the Ry?ky? Kingdom, a highly centralized kingdom that originated from the Okinawa Islands. So combining Nakamoto and Satoshi can be loosely interpreted as “Central Intelligence”.
Is it so really hard to believe? This is from an organization that until the Snowden leaks, secretly recorded nearly all internet traffic on the network level by splicing fiber optic cables. They even have a deep-sea splicing mission that will cut undersea cables and install intercept devices. Making Bitcoin wouldn’t even be a big priority at NSA.
Certainly, anonymity is one of the biggest myths about Bitcoin. In fact, there has never been a more easily traceable method of payment. Every single transaction is recorded and retained permanently in the public “blockchain”. The idea that the NSA would create an anarchic, peer-to-peer crypto-currency in the hope that it would be adopted for nefarious industries and become easy to track would have been a lot more difficult to believe before the recent leaks by Edward Snowden and the revelation that billions of phone calls had been intercepted by the US security services. We are now in a world where we now know that the NSA was tracking the pornography habits of Islamic “radicalisers” in order to discredit them and making deals with some of the world’s largest internet firms to insert backdoors into their systems.
And we’re not the only ones who believe this, in Russia they ‘know’ this to be true without sifting through all the evidence.
Nonetheless, Svintsov’s remarks count as some of the more extreme to emanate from the discussion. Svintsov told Russian broadcast news agency REGNUM:“All these cryptocurrencies [were] created by US intelligence agencies just to finance terrorism and revolutions.”Svintsov reportedly went on to explain how cryptocurrencies have started to become a payment method for consumer spending, and cited reports that terrorist organisations are seeking to use the technology for illicit means.
Let’s elaborate on what is ‘control’ as far as the NSA is concerned. Bitcoin is like the prime mover. All future cryptocurrencies, no matter how snazzy or functional – will never have the same original keys as Bitcoin. It created a self-sustained, self-feeding bubble – and all that followed. It enabled law enforcement to collect a host of criminals on a network called “Silk Road” and who knows what other operations that happened behind the scenes. Because of pesky ‘domestic’ laws, the NSA doesn’t control the internet in foreign countries. But by providing a ‘cool’ currency as a tool, they can collect information from around the globe and like Facebook, users provide this information voluntarily. It’s the same strategy they use like putting the listening device in the chips at the manufacturing level, which saves them the trouble of wiretapping, electronic eavesdropping, and other risky methods that can fail or be blocked. It’s impossible to stop a cellphone from listening to you, for example (well not 100%, but you have to physically rewire the device). Bitcoin is the same strategy on a financial level – by using Bitcoin you’re giving up your private transactional information. By itself, it would not identify you per se (as the blockchain is ‘anonymous’ but the transactions are there in the public register, so combined with other information, which the NSA has a LOT OF – they can triangulate their information more precisely.
That’s one problem solved with Bitcoin – another being the economic problem of QE (although with a Bitcoin market cap of $44 Billion, that’s just another day at the Fed buying MBS) – and finally, it squashes the idea of sovereignty although in a very, very, very subtle way. You see, a country IS a currency. Until now, currency has always been tied to national sovereignty (although the Fed is private, USA only has one currency, the US Dollar, which is exclusively American). Bitcoin is a super-national currency, or really – the world’s first one world currency.
Of course, this is all great praise for the DOD which seems to have a 50 year plan – but after tens of trillions spent we’d hope that they’d be able to do something better than catching terrorists (which mostly are artificial terrorists)
submitted by PeopleWhoDied to conspiracy [link] [comments]

5 Reasons Why International Investors Are Holding Gold In Dubai.

Do you hold any precious metals? If not why? I've been researching precious metals for a number of years.

In my opinion the time to buy gold is now!

As geopolitical instability increases central banks are doubling down on their hoarding of gold, pawn shops are buying our 'scrap gold' for next to nothing and the working class and poorer families are getting more and more into debt.

China is dumping dollars and stacking gold faster than ever, so is Russia and India. Yet when Governments want to scrap notes like the 500 and 1,000 rupees overnight who suffers.

Dubai claims their vault to be the largest non-sovereign vault in the Middle-East.
The vaults are located Seven Storeys Below Ground And One Storey Below Sea Level.
Central Banks in the Middle East are building up their gold reserves, while reducing their dollar forex holding.
China acquiring gold, dumping US dollars.
Holding Precious Metals in Dubai is an Ideal Portfolio Safeguard.

To know more about [gold investments] go here (www.goldinvestment.ae)


submitted by GoldInvestmentPro to u/GoldInvestmentPro [link] [comments]

Ukraine's gold just disappeared: With its gold "vaporized", a furious Ukraine turns on its central bankers

From Joseph P. Farrell:
Now, I have to confess, [when I read this], I felt like I had stepped through some sort of time warp, and was reading about the dealings of those Super-Banksters Montague Norman and Hjalmar Schacht. Remember them?
They could’ve been comic book super heros (which is certainly how they saw themselves): “Faster than a trading algorithm, able to erect mountains of fraud in a single bound (to mix metaphors here), more powerful than ten freight trains of mortgage bundles and derivatives…” and so on.
Well, this one...comes from Zero Hedge and appeared there on Dec. 2. It would seem that the Ukraine’s gold reserves, in a manner that betokens all the magical accounting principles of the NY Federal Reserve Bank, cannot find its gold. Or rather, simply sold it all off:
With Its Gold “Vaporized”, A Furious Ukraine Turns On Its Central Bankers
Seriously, someone needs to compose an opera, or at least an aria, based on all of this bankster stuff going on; call it Don Corleone (sung to the famous duet sung by Il Commendatore and Don Giovanni). Or at least a good set of fairies tales, like Ali Babba and the Federal Reserve; or The Pied Piper of London or The Banker’s New Clothes, or maybe Hansel and Merkel.
Now, here’s what happened, at least as far as Zero Hedge reconstructs it:
“The charges against the chief banker involve foreign currency interventions by the Central Bank in August 2014: On August 5 the NBU bought U.S. dollars on the interbank forex market for UAH 11.93 per U.S. dollar and sold them for UAH 12.26 per U.S. dollar.
During the same week, on August 8, it traded in foreign currency at a higher rate: UAH 12.45-12.6 per U.S. dollar. First it sold $69 million on the interbank forex market at a lower rate, and some days later it bought $35 million at a more favorable price.
As a result of these transactions, the NBU lost 19 kopecks per U.S. dollar, Kravets said.
Kravets claims that by acting so, Gontareva 'has intentionally committed an extremely unfavorable transaction for the gold and forex reserves of Ukraine, despite the fact that under Ukraine’s Constitution it is the Central Bank that is in charge of maintaining the country’s gold reserves.'” (Emphasis in the original)
In other words, after a series of bizarre trades, the end result for the Ukraine was (1) the decline of the value of its currency (2) the perilous decline of its gold reserves, which one may presume are no longer in Kiev or the Ukraine’s vaults in the BIS (Bank of International Settlements, founded by Montague Norman and Hjalmar Schacht [ed.]), having been transferred “across the pond,” to quote Mr. Putin’s expression, or at least into it’s vault at the BIS or elsewhere.
Now, the good news to all this is that apparently the Ukrainian people might be waking up to the idea that a Washington-inspired neo-Nazi coup sponsored by busy-body billionaires and NGOs wasn’t such a good idea (though I’m with Peter Levenda here, there are no paleo- or neo-Nazis, there are just Nazis; they’re a cult, after all).
But you can forget about Valeriya Gontareva being the culprit here. We all probably know where the order ultimately came from…
Oh…by the way, did I mention that Hjalmar Schacht and Montague Norman founded the BIS, and that it in turn was instrumental in the creation of, and the model for, the European Central Bank?
submitted by axolotl_peyotl to conspiracy [link] [comments]

A conversation with my old man on this "drug money"- how many others have had such conversations with their family/friends and in what ways am I mistaken or missing good points/opportunities?

From: GravityChanges
Sent: Wednesday, November 27, 2013 8:27 PM
To: GravityChanges Dad
Subject: jeeze
http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2013/11/27/bitcoin-1000-cryptocurrency/3768821/
I placed an order for 3 BTC the first days of October after getting everything verified for that service... the total was just over three hundred... Sure wishing that transaction went through now! I wish I had made some better decisions when I first got serious about bitcoin last February, but that desire is worthless now.
From: GravityChanges Dad
Sent: Wednesday, November 27, 2013 8:43 PM
To: GravityChanges
Subject: RE: jeeze
Maybe not so bad to remain skeptical. There’s an old saying that’s been historically proven in my life… if it sounds too good to be true it probably is.
Example: latest terrible computer virus is one named Ransom. The virus gets into the computer or business servers and just sits there, compresses all the files, and then one day tells you you have a certain amount of time to pay for the key to unencrypt or everything will be destroyed. They only take bitcoin for payment… because it is untraceable.
Example 2: Do you really think that the central banks, and countries, are going to allow this to become used to circumvent paying taxes and wherever and whoever is actually the recipient of all this bitcoin mania receive the profits. Not going to happen.
While maybe some short term profit could be possible, long term this is going to have some amazing intrigue and story one day on the news.
GravityChanges Dad
From: GravityChanges
Sent: Saturday, December 07, 2013 10:34 AM
To: GravityChanges Dad
Subject: RE: jeeze
http://www.coinion2.dreamhosters.com/2013/12/07/united-states-dollar-almost-doubles-in-value-in-a-single-day/
United States dollar almost doubles in value in a single day AUTHOR Jakub Szypulka
DATE December 7, 2013
The United States dollar, a real-life currency created by a group of revolutionaries after overthrowing the local authorities in North America, has almost doubled in value over the last 24 hours.
Dollars per Bitcoin, with rise visible on the right side. source The currency, that has recently gained widespread adoption, with even sovereign nations choosing to use it, soared to a value that had not been seen since the end of November. Amidst noticeable turbulence on the world’s biggest forex markets in Japan, Slovenia and Shanghai, the United States dollar reached the price it last had on November 25th, 2013. The buck, as some enthusiasts colloquially refer to it, remains highly controversial. Opponents cite fundamental flaws, allowing the money to be created in essentially unlimited amounts. The currency is often used for criminal activities, and is completely anonymous. This is not the first time the currency has seen a fast rise in value. On April 10th this year, it rose over 60% in a single day. However, the fast rises are dangerously deceiving: after each such gain, the currency slowly devalued each time, in what can be described a slow-motion crash. Experts are advising against any kind of long-term investment in the United States dollar, as the currency has been losing value for 227 years in a row.
From: GravityChanges
Sent: Friday, December 13, 2013 5:50 PM
To: GravityChanges Dad
Subject: RE: jeeze
Good reads here naysayer: http://www.abc3340.com/story/24210408/digital-currency-comes-to-the-magic-city
http://edition.cnn.com/2013/12/10/business/will-bitcoin-replace-paypal/
http://money.cnn.com/2013/12/10/technology/bitcoin-currency-fred-wilson/index.html?sr=fb121113bitcoin11p
GravityChanges
From: GravityChanges Dad
Sent: Friday, December 13, 2013 7:19 PM
To: GravityChanges
Subject: RE: jeeze
Bitcoin is a foray for idle-minds and adventurous souls; of which I am neither. Be careful. If the US Government could take your Gold (1930’s) … move us off the gold reserve (1960’s) … and much much more… they can certainly outlaw the use of Bitcoins as a currency. If threatening the US Dollar what do you think the U.S. will do? I think I know the answer to that question.
GravityChanges Dad
From: GravityChanges
Sent: Friday, December 13, 2013 5:50 PM
To: GravityChanges Dad
Subject: RE: jeeze
I certainly agree that the government could (in theory) try to do what you described. In practice it is an international STORE of value and not a currency (just as you wouldn't buy bread with gold). It is more and more being accepted as currency though. Now if the U.S. government tried to destroy its value by similar exertion of power, it could in no way 'take' it away other than limit its use as local currency. It would remain an international store of value. What I believe is more than 50% likely is instead in the future (but too late to really benefit as they won't beat the Asians and some of Europe) the government will support legislation to help grow industries that nurture cryptocurrency. Will that currency be bitcoin? Probably, but there is a shred of possibility it will be a copycat that forks very slightly. Now if they don't do this (and this is ALREADY going on) they will greatly lead the U.S. economy to suffer.
E-commerce traffic and use (internet commercial transactions that replace 'going to a store') grew 50% from 2011 to 2012 and continue those trends (like WOW trends). The Czech republic has 1/4 of its TOTAL revenue from e-commerce. Ecommerce in China bought 37 billion from other countries and took in 376 billion (while growing at HIGH rates each year). From Russia to Brazil e-commerce is reshaping the way EVERYthing is bought and sold (which is a pretty important part of the economy, no?). The U.S. government eventually (previously) delegated and legislated unique regulations for the FTC to carry out in e-commerce to support this trend because if they didn't it would cripple the U.S. economy at a point in the near future. As a result of e-commerce many 'industries' like the travel agencies and bookstores have been completely obliterated in previous form. What you will see in the near future is a VERY similar chain of events with crypto-currency (which is NOT anonymous, but merely digital and semi-anonymous while separate from current central banks) replacing "the internet" in said equation-parallel. I believe that if the U.S. rule-makers have half a brain they will encourage, support, and legislate this sector in the near future (if they have a quarter of a brain it will be a little later, but still be) before it cripples our economy by turning e-commerce and international commerce (as well as a lucrative store of wealth) into the hands of other countries so far that there is no way of regaining a hold. If I am right then in your lifetime, just as bookstores and travel agencies have tried and failed to adapt in their previous embodiment, there will be MANY (yet not most) aspects of central banks that will cease to function or be used by customers and businesses. Simply put, e-commerce and the internet has unarguably been the most drastic change in the world since your birth. It has seeped not only into every aspect of commerce and the economy, but it will continue to gather market power. I do most of my shopping online (what generation and beyond do you think will be controlling the economy soon?). As this happens more and more businesses and industries will desire not to pay 3% or more to credit card companies and paypal. In combination to that, more and more individuals will desire to keep their "shopping" AND investment money in a currency/form that doesn't suffer from GOVERNMENT INDUCED inflation via printing money. Bitcoin has an absolute limit on the number that will ever be in existence. In order for my prophesy to not come into fruition you need MANY things to fail for bitcoin (not one country's government being ignorant).
I got interested in bitcoin early, but never wanted to invest because it always seemed like "too much money" when looking into the past prices as it was about $40 when I first wanted to get in and cents a few months previous. I very much believe that what we are STILL standing on though is the beginning of a revolutionary change as dramatic as the time between the creation of the internet and today. When I was young the internet was a thing that universities and geeks only knew of. When I was a kid the fictional Wargames and Weird Science movies and culture changes portrayed the internet as magic that no one normal could use and no one understood anything about. Then it became something with horribly designed geo-cities by the eccentric (almost a forerunner to blogs)... then came AOL and it brought ease of use, capitalism, and more casual applications like simple searches, an organized UI (user interface), chat rooms.. the internet picked up exponential steam! Soon AOL wasn't powerful enough to contain it and it EXPLODED into what it is today. It's use blew past recreation and it is the pillar of many industries and a boon to those it isn't. We are seeing the same path in terms of evolution and utilization with bitcoin (though it 'could' be said in future hindsight if bitcoin fails that the progression benefitted crypto-currency in general over bitcoin.. it WILL lead to either bitcoin or pseudo-bitcoin's prevalence and bitcoin IS the best bet). I first became interested in bitcoin during its geo-cities phase. I said the same things you are saying. Now I recognize that it is in that AOL phase I described. It is becoming more wide-spread and accessible with better user interfaces and casual applications, it is blowing up exponentially and our capitalist economy is grabbing hold (yet competing with international economies and markets of every kind). This will be a BIG change to the current view of stores of wealth. This will likely be a revolution in international and e-commerce. It is experiencing that exponential growth that the internet had at the tail end of AOL's reign and soon it will be too large and widespread for such simple and worthless ways to manipulate and utilize what bitcoin is just as people signed off AOL for the last time and really stepped into the internet (except for mom).
That is all,
GravityChanges
submitted by GravityChanges to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: CryptoCurrency top posts from 2016-06-07 to 2017-06-06 02:47 PDT

Period: 363.15 days
Submissions Comments
Total 999 15798
Rate (per day) 2.75 42.46
Unique Redditors 448 3925
Combined Score 39454 48727

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 5473 points, 127 submissions: CryptoCurrencyNews
    1. Russian President Vladimir Putin Discusses Using Ethereum with Vitalik Buterin (214 points, 52 comments)
    2. Suddenly Vladimir Putin Meets Vitalik Buterin, Endorses Ethereum (140 points, 16 comments)
    3. Japanese Airline Accepts Bitcoin As Cryptocurrency Fever Spreads Across the Region (139 points, 6 comments)
    4. Siacoin Value Reaches US$0.01 As Trading Volume Surpasses Ethereum (130 points, 88 comments)
    5. Coinbase Users Can Now Buy and Sell Litecoin (126 points, 44 comments)
    6. Leading Japanese ATM Manufacturer Oki Gets into Bitcoin ATM Business (111 points, 4 comments)
    7. Bitcoin to Be Accepted at 260,000 Stores in Japan by This Summer (110 points, 15 comments)
    8. Russia’s Central Bank Drafting Proposal to Classify Bitcoins as Digital Goods (109 points, 13 comments)
    9. Japan’s Bitpoint to Add Bitcoin Payments to 100,000+ Stores (105 points, 0 comments)
    10. The Japanese are Using Bitcoin More than Expected (101 points, 4 comments)
  2. 1226 points, 36 submissions: Coinosphere
    1. Bitcoin expected to become part of everyday life in the Caribbean within eighteen months as banks abandon the region (70 points, 11 comments)
    2. Marijuana now legal in eight more US States while vendors get more bitcoin options (63 points, 0 comments)
    3. Bitfinex hacked, halts trading, deposits, and withdrawals - 119,756 BTC lost so far with no insurance (61 points, 4 comments)
    4. Hacker holds San Francisco railway to ransom, demands 100 bitcoins (56 points, 8 comments)
    5. Santander says ‘Yes to bitcoin’ in Brazil (53 points, 3 comments)
    6. Ukraine to be the first government to integrate blockchain technology, targets corruption (53 points, 1 comment)
    7. 50% of all consumers would use bank alternatives, including bitcoin, as Bank irrelevance grows (50 points, 0 comments)
    8. South Korea plans national digital currency using a Blockchain (47 points, 7 comments)
    9. Hackers auction NSA cyber weapons for bitcoin (43 points, 2 comments)
    10. Seafile replaces Paypal with bitcoin after Paypal privacy shenanigans (43 points, 0 comments)
  3. 1109 points, 20 submissions: Lukovka
    1. The IRS is Due to Present its Digital Currency Strategy to Congress Next Week (152 points, 49 comments)
    2. Huobi is the First Chinese Cryptocurrency Exchange To Allow Ethereum Trading (105 points, 19 comments)
    3. Bitcoin jumps to fresh record near $1,900 amid increased political risk (103 points, 23 comments)
    4. Bitcoin Exchanges Kraken, Poloniex To Be Scrutinized For Possible Insider Trading, Manipulation (102 points, 52 comments)
    5. US National Security Advisor: Bitcoin Needs to Be Understood, Not Feared (85 points, 1 comment)
    6. The Price of Bitcoin Breached $2,000 (72 points, 8 comments)
    7. Bitcoin soars above $1,700 as market cap adds $1 billion in just 24 hours (69 points, 23 comments)
    8. Coinbase CEO Claims The Company Saw 40,000 User Registrations in one day (61 points, 11 comments)
    9. Bitcoin Isn’t Money, Rules US Judge in Money Laundering Case (53 points, 3 comments)
    10. Bitcoin Investors Switching to Other Cryptocurrencies Due to Rising Fees (50 points, 18 comments)
  4. 697 points, 5 submissions: backforwardlow
    1. Ripple was 100% premined. Stellar was 97% premined. (271 points, 163 comments)
    2. Dear noobs, if you ask for investment advice, people will tell you to invest in what they hold, even if it makes you poor. (258 points, 46 comments)
    3. Stop using Poloniex (104 points, 145 comments)
    4. Too much money is being thrown at risky unknown entities. (46 points, 83 comments)
    5. Madness - Stratris now has a higher marketcap than Dash and Monero and volume more than both combined. (18 points, 53 comments)
  5. 687 points, 8 submissions: AnythingForSuccess
    1. Shills these days...can't believe its so accurate (206 points, 18 comments)
    2. How Litecoin feels right now (136 points, 41 comments)
    3. Daily reminder to keep your wallets safe, a guy is about to get robbed of 70+ BTC (101 points, 13 comments)
    4. Bubble confirmed (93 points, 189 comments)
    5. Are we in a cryptobubble akin to dotcom bubble? (52 points, 79 comments)
    6. Daily reminder guys! (52 points, 20 comments)
    7. Thoughts on IOTA project? (28 points, 17 comments)
    8. Is there some detailed rebuttal to these worrying Ethereum issues? (19 points, 26 comments)
  6. 679 points, 20 submissions: helmsk
    1. Bitcoin Transactions Declared VAT-Exempt in Norway (86 points, 3 comments)
    2. Countdown: Bitcoin Will Be a Legal Method of Payment in Japan in Two Months (85 points, 2 comments)
    3. Zeronet Wants to Replace the Dark Web by Marrying Bitcoin to Bittorrent Over Tor (46 points, 3 comments)
    4. New Image Hosting Service Pays Thousands of Uploaders in Bitcoin (45 points, 4 comments)
    5. Central Bank of Nigeria Says ‘We Can’t Stop Bitcoin’ (43 points, 6 comments)
    6. Coinbase Exits as Hawaii Requires Bitcoin Companies to Hold Fiat Reserves (40 points, 7 comments)
    7. Europe Lays Out Roadmap to Restrict Payments in Cash and Cryptocurrencies (35 points, 1 comment)
    8. Polish Bitcoin Adoption Escalating with Strong Ecosystem (32 points, 1 comment)
    9. One of These 5 Hyperinflating Economies Could Adopt Bitcoin in 2017 (31 points, 6 comments)
    10. A Look At Bitcoin Bubbles, When Will the Next One Be? (25 points, 7 comments)
  7. 653 points, 24 submissions: e-ok
    1. Europe Will Have Power to Ban Blockchain Tech in January 2018 (54 points, 20 comments)
    2. Italy's Largest Taxi Fleet Accepts Bitcoin (44 points, 2 comments)
    3. Bitcoin Projects on Github Surpass 10,000 (41 points, 3 comments)
    4. Bitcoin Symbol Left Out of Unicode's Latest Version (41 points, 4 comments)
    5. Malta's Prime Minister Says Europe Should Become the Bitcoin Continent (37 points, 3 comments)
    6. SEC Rejects Rule Change for Bitcoin ETF (32 points, 0 comments)
    7. Bitcoin Price Poised for a Breakout, Technical Analysis Shows (29 points, 5 comments)
    8. ECB to EU: Tighter Regulations, Less Anonymity on Digital Currencies (29 points, 8 comments)
    9. China's Constant Bubbles Drive Investors to Bitcoin in Droves (27 points, 0 comments)
    10. Yuan Heading for Big Drop -€“ What China's Outflows Mean for Bitcoin (26 points, 1 comment)
  8. 632 points, 15 submissions: -bnc
    1. Japan's largest Forex market opens Bitcoin exchanges to overwhelming demand (170 points, 1 comment)
    2. EU Parliament states Virtual Currencies cannot be anonymous (68 points, 26 comments)
    3. Wells Fargo sued for suspending Bitfinex wire transfers (68 points, 2 comments)
    4. ShapeShift launches trustless asset portfolio platform, Prism (54 points, 18 comments)
    5. Coinify and Countr partnership brings Bitcoin payments to 3,000 merchants (43 points, 2 comments)
    6. Civic launches decentralized identity solution for all occasions (35 points, 3 comments)
    7. UASF - Bitcoin's emergency plan to enact SegWit (29 points, 4 comments)
    8. Lightning Network XCTx adoption ushers in a new era of cryptocurrency functionality (25 points, 1 comment)
    9. Brazil pilots Bitcoin solution for real estate registration (24 points, 4 comments)
    10. 21 launches Lists, for bitcoin powered ‘microconsulting’ (21 points, 1 comment)
  9. 619 points, 1 submission: throwaway23613
    1. I Just Became a Crypto Millionaire (619 points, 242 comments)
  10. 609 points, 9 submissions: TommyEconomics
    1. Cryptocurrency passes $100B in total market cap! (169 points, 13 comments)
    2. Bitcoin just dropped below 50% dominance for the first time ever. (138 points, 78 comments)
    3. Bitcoin dominance now at 59.7%, below 60% for the first time ever. (68 points, 25 comments)
    4. Altcoin market cap passes $10B for first time. (60 points, 35 comments)
    5. Total cryptocurrency market cap now exceeds $20B for the first time! (59 points, 8 comments)
    6. Cryptocurrency market cap passes $70B alongside Bitcoin passing $2000 (31 points, 3 comments)
    7. Search traffic for "Cryptocurrency" hits all-time high! (30 points, 0 comments)
    8. We just hit a $40 billion market cap for cryptocurrency, congrats everyone! (30 points, 15 comments)
    9. Made a video that explains Monero, and on the current market situation. Check it out and let me know what you think! (24 points, 5 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. CryptoInvestor (527 points, 49 comments)
  2. trancephorm (494 points, 135 comments)
  3. nugymmer (347 points, 157 comments)
  4. Metasaurus_Rex (297 points, 23 comments)
  5. undystains (257 points, 28 comments)
  6. backforwardlow (250 points, 57 comments)
  7. algar32 (237 points, 68 comments)
  8. Rxef3RxeX92QCNZ (225 points, 75 comments)
  9. xmr_lucifer (225 points, 39 comments)
  10. ohiomoonchild (222 points, 67 comments)
  11. CryptoMaximalist (202 points, 36 comments)
  12. KalpaX (201 points, 68 comments)
  13. antiprosynthesis (183 points, 70 comments)
  14. peacheswithpeaches (178 points, 26 comments)
  15. c_reddit_m (173 points, 80 comments)
  16. NateOnTheNet (172 points, 51 comments)
  17. disignore (168 points, 22 comments)
  18. Justtryme90 (164 points, 45 comments)
  19. kap_fallback (163 points, 23 comments)
  20. thedesertlynx (155 points, 62 comments)
  21. Darius510 (153 points, 49 comments)
  22. We_are_all_satoshi (153 points, 33 comments)
  23. _moto (151 points, 21 comments)
  24. MR_CHNYD (150 points, 55 comments)
  25. DeepSpace9er (148 points, 26 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. I Just Became a Crypto Millionaire by throwaway23613 (619 points, 242 comments)
  2. Cryptocurrency website starterpack by Luit03 (451 points, 31 comments)
  3. I believe we are safe now. by proce55or (443 points, 35 comments)
  4. The Tokes Platform releases 4/20 Newsletter outlining new developments: products, mobile app, and more... #420Blazetheblockchain by Cryptnition (308 points, 3 comments)
  5. MONERO EXPLAINED by cryptoKL (292 points, 71 comments)
  6. Visualization of Cryptocurrency Correlations by SNAP_Longterm (280 points, 49 comments)
  7. Ripple was 100% premined. Stellar was 97% premined. by backforwardlow (271 points, 163 comments)
  8. CryptoMarkets right now by sneaky_soy_sauce (270 points, 16 comments)
  9. A warning - I am about to buy by kriegsfuehrung (264 points, 62 comments)
  10. Dear noobs, if you ask for investment advice, people will tell you to invest in what they hold, even if it makes you poor. by backforwardlow (258 points, 46 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 211 points: Metasaurus_Rex's comment in $10K to invest - What to do?
  2. 132 points: disignore's comment in Cryptocurrency website starterpack
  3. 121 points: illSeeMyselfOutNowOk's comment in A warning - I am about to buy
  4. 107 points: undystains's comment in Ripple was 100% premined. Stellar was 97% premined.
  5. 103 points: imonlyherefortheeths's comment in Since I got into cryptocurrencies a week ago, that's my crypto app folder on iPhone - am I missing something?
  6. 97 points: madhattared's comment in I hate to be this guy but... we are in a huge bubble, hear me out
  7. 92 points: CharlieBaumhauser's comment in Ripple is a scam
  8. 87 points: kongclassic's comment in What are your alt coin trading strategies?
  9. 73 points: CryptoInvestor's comment in What is your cryptocurrency you follow and why?
  10. 73 points: CryptoInvestor's comment in Thoughts in general on $SC - Siacoin?
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats (Donate)
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Weekly Roundup | Random Chat | Notifications

News roundup for the previous week.
In International news
  1. Feature: U.S. dignitaries say U.S., China must keep good relations to benefit world
  2. 'Serious' hack attacks from China targeting UK firms: The gang behind the attacks has compromised technology service firms and plans to use them as a proxy for attacks, security firms have said
  3. Americans' concerns about China: ranked
  4. China donated 12,173 tonnes of rice to Zimbabwe to assist vulnerable people that were affected by drought which wreaked havoc last year. In 2016, China already donated 19,000 tonnes of rice which had been distributed to the needy throughout the country
  5. China, South Korea discuss more sanctions on North Korea amid talk of Trump action
  6. Freight train to leave Britain on long haul for China
  7. Blackwater founder Erik Prince eyes opportunities with China
  8. China’s National Space Administration Secretary-General Yulong Tian says that China is contemplating developing cooperation with Russia with respect to space debris
  9. American-Chinese Lady's Dream of Attending Tsinghua: Those who were born in America should know their roots and identify themselves as Chinese because they will not get lost, feel ashamed or reject their motherland's culture in the crisis of identity of American society, Tan concluded
  10. Racist United Airline Overbooked Flight, Forcibly Removes Asian Doctor and His Wife For No Reason Other Than to Free up Seats (United - has acknowledged that the man's only apparent crime was that the flight was overbooked and he refused to leave voluntarily)
  11. Boy, two, and parents suffer burns after acid attack in north London
  12. Russia may abandon International Space Station to join forces with China
  13. A consortium of Chinese and Indonesian firms on Tuesday signed a contract with KCIC, a firm tasked with monitoring the high-speed train project linking Jakarta to Bandung, unveiling the construction phase of the project
  14. China warns against using military force in Syria
  15. United Passenger's Violent Removal Sparks Outrage In China: Images of a bloodied passenger being forcibly removed from a United Airlines flight in Chicago drew widespread condemnation in China following a witnesses' report that the man said he was targeted because he was Chinese
  16. Chinese Lives Matter Petition Becoming Viral in the Overseas Chinese Community
  17. China and Norway resume free trade negotiations after diplomatic freeze: The memorandum of understanding was one of six pacts covering cooperation on economic development, technology, health, science and sport
  18. Russia and China Finding Ways to Avoid the U.S. Dollar: The Central Bank of Russia opened its first overseas office in Beijing. ICBC established a clearing bank in Moscow to handle transactions in Chinese currency. Russia is preparing to issue its first federal loan bonds in Chinese currency
  19. Many in China think doctor was dragged off because he was Asian. 'United Airlines just randomly chose an Asian? It’s blatant racial discrimination' 'a perfect illustration' of human rights in the US. 'I am going to tell you a joke: America is the country with the best human rights'
  20. Chinese social media continues to rage at United, and the airline may face real fallout
  21. China tells US to resolve Korea tensions peacefully
  22. China commits US$60bn to Africa
  23. China warns India over Dalai's visit to disputed area
  24. China Might Bomb North Korea If It Crosses Beijing’s ‘Bottom Line’
  25. Trump, in an interview with the Wall Street Journal on Wednesday, appeared to acknowledge that China hasn’t been intervening to weaken its currency recently. “They’re not currency manipulators," he said. (finally we can move on from this made up/outdated fight)
  26. Trump says he told Xi how he bombed Syria over ‘most beautiful piece of cake’: says that he was faced with a dilemma – whether to inform Xi. “What does he do, finish his dessert and go home and then they say, you know, the guy you just had dinner with just attacked a country?” Trump mused
  27. Trump claims China has turned back N. Korean coal ships, lauds it as 'big step': "The vast amount of coal that comes out of North Korea going to China, they've turned back the boats. That's a big step, and they have many other steps that I know about."
  28. Chinese premier holds talks with Sao Tome and Principe counterpart on cooperation
  29. Lukashenko: Belarus is ready to increase food supplies to China's Hunan Province
  30. China publicly criticises US missile strike on Syria
  31. China, Sri Lanka vow to deepen cooperation to further develop strategic cooperative partnership
  32. Russian-Chinese Joint Ventures in Russia’s Far East, Arctic: An integral element in increasing bilateral trade will be the increased maritime transit of goods and hydrocarbon resources by developing Russia’s merchant marine infrastructure
  33. Russian President Vladimir Putin confirmed his plans to visit China in May to take part in the "One Belt, One Road" forum in Beijing
  34. White House: China Abstained From UN Vote on Syria Thanks to Trump-Xi
  35. The 10 minutes with Xi Jinping that changed Donald Trump’s mind on North Korea
  36. First rail freight service to China departs UK: British goods including soft drinks, vitamins and baby products are in the 30 containers carried by the train, which will be a regular service. The train will pass through 7 other countries before arriving on 27 April
  37. Chinese FM: Political settlement is only reliable and right way to solve crisis in Syria
  38. Belarus' cooperation with Hunan Province hailed as example to follow
  39. "There can be no winners in an armed conflict between the U.S. and North Korea over Pyongyang's nuclear weapons and missile programs, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi said Friday [14 April 2017], while pledging China's support for any attempts at dialogue between the sides."
  40. In the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2017, China ranked 15 among 136 countries in 14 dimensions, up two spots
  41. China seeks Russia's help to 'cool' N. Korea situation
  42. China says deal reached at last with Myanmar on oil pipeline
  43. Foreign Minister statement on Korea situation. Check out the comments.
In Domestic news
  1. China anti-graft body investigating chief insurance regulator
  2. Beijing to reward informants on spying
  3. Luxembourg Consulate Staff tries to physically assault old Chinese man in Shanghai
  4. China emerges as digital rights champion with new info privacy law
  5. President Xi meets incoming HKSAR chief executive
  6. JD.com to build 150 airports in China for drone delivery: Drone delivery would help reduce the freight costs by 70 percent. It said its drones, which can carry 50 kilograms of parcels, have been put into use and drones that can carry 500 kilograms are in the pipeline
  7. Graph: Finding China's missing girls who show up in the census years -- sometimes decades -- after birth
  8. China raises pensions amid pressure from slowing economy, aging population
  9. China Focus: Xiongan's key role is to receive Beijing's non-capital functions: vice premier
In SciTech news
  1. The Top 10 Artificial Intelligence Startups in China
  2. Self-charging robots sorting system helps Chinese delivery firm finish at least 200k packages a day in the warehouse
  3. Seaweed: From superfood to superconductor. Yang, currently at Qingdao University, worked with colleagues at Qingdao University and at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the U.S. to make porous carbon nanofibers from seaweed extract
  4. Squishy robotic manta ray flaps its wings to spy in the ocean: The goal is to use the robot to explore underwater areas, says Tiefeng Li at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China. “The soft body will make it easy for the robot to sneak through reefs without damaging them,”
  5. Geek Culture Could Teach Americans About Chinese Technology, Says Technopreneur: According to Zhang, being called a geek is a compliment in China as someone who is "super cool" and knowledgeable about technology, and doesn't mean being weird or socially awkward
  6. Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent advance China’s AI development goals, says Microsoft research head. The mainland may be closing in on the US in developing AI, led by its three main internet firms, says Harry Shum Heung-yeung, executive vice-president for the artificial intelligence and research group
  7. China Emerges as Powerhouse for Biotech Drugs
  8. China launches 1st high-throughput communications satellite
  9. Legion Y520 Review - Lenovo's Best Laptop For $850 (Dave Lee review)
  10. Researchers in China and US made a new viral tracking tool by encapsulating HIV-1 in fluorescent quantum dots to observe how the virus enters macrophages at the single particle level in live cells. Technique may help in development of inhibitors that stop HIV from entering macrophages altogether.
  11. Chuwi Hi13: First Look at the Windows 10 2-in-1 with Surface Book Display
  12. SpaceX doesn’t scare Asia’s space players
  13. Google AI's AlphaGo to face Chinese teen in May - Science & Tech
  14. China’s Desert Hamsters on Medicine’s Front Line: The humble Chinese hamster has played a vital role in medical advances for more than a century, thanks to its biological makeup
In Economic news
  1. The bulls are back after China kicks off 2017 with strength: "There's been this cyclical recovery — China's in an easing mode … It shows up in the economic numbers, and it shows up in many company earnings reports," said Brendan Ahern, chief investment officer at Krane Funds Advisors
  2. America owes China $1tn. That's a problem for Beijing, and Trump knows it
  3. U.S. and European regulators have cleared ChemChina's proposed $43 billion acquisition of Swiss agribusiness giant Syngenta on condition it sells some businesses to satisfy anti-monopoly objections
  4. Ballpoint pens and the danger of China’s ‘one-dragon’ policy
  5. The Next Time Americans Want To Believe They Have Free Markets, Remind Them of United Airlines
  6. The surprising rise of China as IP powerhouse
  7. US firms cashing in on China's shift to consumer economy
  8. China is investing in Silicon Valley start-ups with military applications at such a rapid rate that the United States government needs tougher controls to stem the transfer of some of America’s most promising technologies, a Pentagon report says
  9. WhatsApp looks to copy China's Tencent-owned WeChat
  10. Why Trump won't be branding China a currency cheater
  11. China Focus: China's consumer inflation steady amid firming economy
  12. China Focus: Chinese companies come, hiring more locals in U.S.: Chinese investment in the U.S. outstripped U.S. investment in China for the first time in 2015, according to the Rhodium Group. Chinese investment has supported about 104,000 jobs in the United States
  13. China's forex reserves rise for second month in a row: concerns about capital outflows have receded lately, with the Chinese economy on a firmer footing, supported by a string of upbeat data including industrial profits, factory activity and fixed asset investment
  14. Trump won't label China a currency manipulator
  15. U.S. business leaders see benefits from strong trade ties with China
  16. China’s top maker of air conditioners breezes into Brazil’s economy and society
  17. Beijing thinking big on switch to a big data economy: Ministry pushes five-year plan to develop big data into a trillion-yuan industry. The target is for the big data industry, including related goods and services, to exceed 1 trillion yuan (US$144 billion) in revenue by 2020
  18. How Oppo, Vivo and xiaomi conquered India (OPPO、vivo和小米们如何夺取印度半壁江山?)
  19. Korea, China, Japan to hold new round of free trade talks
  20. U.S. Treasury says China does not manipulate its currency
  21. China’s Global Solar Business Shakes Foreign Competitors: China’s relentless pursuit to become self-dependent on sophisticated industries, such as solar panel systems, have left foreign competitors and even smaller-scale Chinese businesses in the dust
In Military news
  1. Thailand to buy more Chinese tanks, reportedly for $58M: According to Thai government spokesman Sansern Kaewkamnerd, the cabinet has approved the acquisition of 10 more VT4 main battle tanks designed and built by China’s Norinco
  2. China and US agree to top military talks to head off close armed encounters: New mechanism between Chinese and US armed forces could ease Beijing’s suspicions about US moves, analyst says
  3. China and Russia are Catching Up to the U.S. Military: America’s enemies are rapidly catching up and in some cases exceeding the United States in terms of military technology, according to senior U.S. Navy official Rear Adm. Mark Darrah
  4. US racing China to develop hypersonic attack drones by 2040
  5. China is testing its new PL-15 long-range air-to-air missile (LRAAM) designed to shoot down defenseless U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy aerial tankers and airborne early warning and control aircraft (AEW&C) from as far away as 300 kilometers
  6. China Takes Wraps Off National Hypersonic Plan
  7. Chinese armed police hold anti-terror drill in Xinjiang
  8. SOUTHCOM Tidd: Russia, Iran and China Expanding Influence in Central, South America. Russia, China and Iran are increasing interest in Central and South America, especially Moscow’s renewed focus on Nicaragua, the head of U.S. Southern Command told the Senate
  9. China Coast Guard vessels patrol Diaoyu Islands on Fri, the 10th time this year
Other Notables
  1. Demolishing Dalian: China's 'Russian' city is erasing its heritage – in pictures
  2. DJI - M200 – Search and Rescue in Extreme Environments
  3. Driving under the rainbow! Watch China's first and only rainbow tunnel
  4. Ancient Chinese tomb-sweeping festival goes hi-tech: If you can't get to the grave yourself, staff at the Yuhuatai Gongdeyuan cemetery will clean tombs and place bouquets for paying clients, who watch the ritual via a livestream on the Wechat app instead
  5. Shanghai past and present
  6. High Profile Korean-Chinese Movie coproduction is a scifi set to release June 30th in China - Starring Yang Mi, Wallace Huo, Produced by Jackie Chan
  7. Westerners oughtn’t to criticize China for its ‘fake cities’: hypocrisy in the way Western media approaches "duplitecture". Core neighborhoods within Manhattan Island owe their architecture to Mannheim, Germany. Try and tell apart the central districts of Buenos Aires, Argentina from Madrid, Spain
  8. The Chinese engineer who mined an American life in Hibbing: In 1914 Wen Ping Pan became the first Chinese student at UofM. Met his wife Mae Humm, who was half-Irish like his mother. She retained an Irish temper and a talent for gab. As a result, she did most of the talking in their 63 yr marriage
  9. 3-part online low-key documentary series looking at different lives in China. First part features Wuhan and punk band SMZB.
  10. Is Hong Kong less free now than under British colonial rule?
  11. Goddess Ivanka continues to win the hearts of Chinese people as she began teaching Mandarin Chinese to Theodore, her youngest son. The boy began his Mandarin lessons just a week following his first birthday
  12. The Mercury Rivers of Emperor Qin Shi Huang
  13. The Chinese engineer who mined an American life on Minnesota's Iron Range
  14. Parcel sorting facility in China
  15. China and The Troubling Idealization of Ivanka
  16. Xiongan New Area to be Shenzhen of the north
  17. China's New World Order - the new Silk Road
  18. Why The NY Time’s Title of ‘Goddess Ivanka’ Is Misleading
  19. The Lionsgate movie “Power Rangers” got the approval of China’s censor for theatrical release on May 12 even if it has a gay character
  20. A Chinese bank employee is being hailed as a hero after risking his life to save a female customer from a robber who put a knife to her neck
  21. Unfettered online hate speech fuels Islamophobia in China.
  22. 汉服音乐微电影 汉家衣裳 超清
  23. Xiongan construction expected to drive up China steel market
  24. China's Xiongan New Area: Protecting environments a major task
  25. White Mainstream Media Goes On The Offensive Against Critics of United Airlines
  26. Success of China behind the growing allure of authoritarianism: the economic successes of China and some other countries may have helped create an underlying crisis of confidence in liberal ideas and values
  27. What does the Hong Kong Sevens have to do with Hongkongers?
  28. Thoughts on article about British Colonialism holding India Back? How did China overcome the Century of Humiliation while the British Raj's legacy still looms over India?
  29. Taiwanese music festival
  30. Foreign girls and their Chinese Mr. Right: Confronted with failure in College Entrance Examination Mei Aisi went to Ukraine for study
  31. What Would Have Happened If China Didn't Develop Nuclear Weapons?
  32. Child prodigy from Sale scores highest possible IQ score, beating Einstein and Hawking (From Messenger Newspapers)
  33. Discussion: Do you think the current escalation in the Korean Peninsula could possibly end up becoming a big boon to China?
  34. Chinese explorer's incredible arctic journey: This is the Arctic Circle, and Zhanjiang-born Wu Yu has just become the first person to ever drive here from China, some 8,000 kilometers away
  35. Reviving traditional Chinese archery: As one of the traditional Six Arts that have their roots in Confucian philosophy and formed the basis of education in ancient Chinese culture, archery has a long history in China
  36. The Results Are In: 2016 Is a Record-Breaking Year for Tall Buildings
  37. Pictures: Apricot flowers in blossom at Jinshanling Great Wall
  38. Something I noticed about chinese-canadians in canada
  39. TIL that the first king of the first muslim kingdom in indonesia was chinese indonesian
  40. Getting paid to do nothing: why the idea of China’s dibao is catching on
  41. Five thousand years of Chinese civilisation through 108 million relics - Four year survey finds that is just what is in the hands of the state. The number grows even more when considering overseas museums and private collectors
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EU states hollow out NY Fed: Lowest gold reserves in decades remain Why Are Russian, Kazakh Central Banks Slashing/Halting Gold Reserves Acquisitions Russia is Getting Ready for Currency War; Buys Up Huge Hoard of Gold, 17% of World Reserves! Forex News  Central Bank Balance sheet  Janet Yellen  High Impact How Central Banks Influence Forex Prices - YouTube Britain Buys $5.7 Billion In Gold From Russia! What is the purpose of the central banks? (May 2013) - YouTube The Central Bank of Russia Adds More Gold To Reserves in March Has Germany Increased Its Gold Reserves For The First Time In 21 Years?

Date International reserves of which: foreign exchange reserves of which: gold; foreign exchange SDRs reserve position in IMF; 31/10/2020: 582,845: 444,188 Foreign exchange reserves are cash and other reserves held by a central bank of a country that are primarily available for imports, influencing the exchange rate of the currency and to maintain confidence in the financial markets. Foreign exchange is typically held in a reserve currency, usually the United States Dollar and sometimes the Euro. Foreign exchange reserves also include reserves in ... Russia’s foreign exchange holdings have risen for the second consecutive week to reach $587.6 billion, according to the latest data released by the country’s central bank. The holdings rose by $3.6 billion, or 0.62 percent, from October 30 to November 6. The growth was supported by “positive ... The central bank's foreign exchange reserves again inflates: foreign exchange reserves rebounded to the level of January 2015. - From a minimum of 2015 years increased by more than 10% - Restored ... Foreign exchange reserves are assets denominated in a foreign currency that are held by a central bank. These may include foreign currencies, bonds, treasury bills, and other government securities. Activity Documents and data About Bank of Russia Services + 7 499 300-30-00 8 800 300-30-00. Events Contacts Site map About the Site . Databases. International Reserves of the Russian Federation (End of period) Monthly values. Weekly values. Was this page useful? Yes No. Up. 12 Neglinnaya Street, Moscow, 107016 Russia. 8 800 300-30-00 +7 499 300-30-00. Investor Relations. Public Holidays in ... In Russia, Foreign Exchange Reserves are the foreign assets held or controlled by the country central bank. The reserves are made of gold or a specific currency. They can also be special drawing rights and marketable securities denominated in foreign currencies like treasury bills, government bonds, corporate bonds and equities and foreign currency loans. Statistics showed that since January 1, Russia boosted forex reserves by $35.4 billion. They were up by 18.3 percent last year. The state’s international reserves are highly liquid foreign assets comprising stocks of monetary gold, foreign currencies, and Special Drawing Right (SDR) assets, which are at the disposal of the Central Bank of Russia (CBR) and the government. The current level of ... The share of allocated currency reserves held in yuan, also known as renminbi, rose to 1.89 percent, the highest since the IMF began reporting its share of central bank holdings in the fourth ... The state's international reserves are highly liquid foreign assets comprising stocks of monetary gold, foreign currencies and Special Drawing Right (SDR) assets, which are at the disposal of the Central Bank of Russia (CBR) and the government. Several years ago, the regulator set the target level for forex holdings at $500 billion which was finally reached in June 2019.

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EU states hollow out NY Fed: Lowest gold reserves in decades remain

Russia is Shoring Up Gold Reserves and Slowly Dumping the Dollar! - Duration: 5:06. Vesti News 24,513 views. 5:06. Central Bank buying of gold hits recent highs - Duration: 7:33. ... The world's central banks have been stocking up on gold. The Bank of Russia purchased 92 tons of the precious metal. The Bank of Russia purchased 92 tons of the precious metal. Category After WW2, many countries were pressured into depositing their reserves in America's underground vaults. Since the beginning of 2014 foreign central banks ha... Why Are Russian, Kazakh Central Banks Slashing/Halting Gold Reserves Acquisitions Smaul gld. Loading... Unsubscribe from Smaul gld? Cancel Unsubscribe. Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ... The Central Bank of Russia Adds More Gold To Reserves in March Smaul gld. Loading... Unsubscribe from Smaul gld? ... Why Central Banks Buy So Much Gold - Duration: 3:25. Bloomberg Markets and ... Has Germany increased it's gold reserves for the first time in 21 years? Important story of how Bloomberg reported that Germany had added to its gold res... Forex News Central Bank Balance sheet Janet Yellen High Impact Top Traders. Loading... Unsubscribe from Top Traders? Cancel Unsubscribe. Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 78.2K ... In this video, we recap the general effects of interest rate changes on currencies and then explore how central banks use interest rates to control inflation... In the series „A Cup of Coffee with Rainer Münz" our expert explains economic and financial terms and topics.

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